Image: MRO and HiRISE
An artist's conception shows the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter flying over Red Planet terrain. The probe's telescopic camera, known as the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment or HiRISE, is the golden-colored tube pointing downward from the center of the spacecraft.
By Senior space writer
updated 3/21/2006 1:21:06 PM ET 2006-03-21T18:21:06

Scientists and engineers are ready to start testing the image-taking skills of the newest spacecraft to swing into orbit around Mars.

NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is in great shape after its arrival at the planet on March 10. It is now being readied to produce its first images of Mars this week — using the most powerful telescope camera ever sent to another planet.

The University of Arizona’s super-powerful High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment, or HiRISE camera, is scheduled to relay first test shots of Mars on Thursday to the university's HiRISE Operations Center in Tucson.

Alfred McEwen, leader of HiRISE from the University of Arizona, cautioned that the first images will be highly experimental. His team will be trying a number of algorithms and systems for the first time, so things could go wrong, McEwen noted in a university press statement. "However, we are sure to learn important lessons about how to operate the spacecraft and HiRISE," he added.

Furthermore, due to the geometries of the probe’s early orbit and the start of fall in Mars’ southern hemisphere, HiRISE test images may reveal a planetary surface obscured by atmospheric dust or ice hazes. The camera will take pictures of the middle latitudes of the southern hemisphere. That region is where many geologically recent gullies have been seen, features that may have been carved by water.

HiRISE images taken during two orbits will be the camera’s only photos for the next six months.

After the test shots, the camera will be turned off while the spacecraft "aerobrakes" — a process whereby Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will repeatedly dip into Mars’ upper atmosphere to circularize its orbit around the planet.

Aerobraking ahead
"The MRO orbit insertion [on March 10] was exactly as planned," said Jim Graf, the mission's project manager at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. The orbit period of the spacecraft around Mars is 35.5 hours, with closest approach at 265 miles (426 kilometers), he told

Graf said that MRO is operating nominally, and there are no known problems.

The MRO team is working hard to accomplish all the things needed to start aerobraking at the end of the month, he added. This includes taking early test images with several of the instruments; uploading software patches and modifying existing onboard computer files; finishing ground-based risk testing; and conducting operational readiness tests.

More test imagery
Test images taken from several MRO instruments, including HiRISE, are scheduled, Graf said. Other instruments include the Context Camera, or CTX, which provides wide area views of Mars terrain to help scientists appreciate the context for close-up photos, as well as the Mars Color Imager, or MARCI, a weather camera that eyes clouds and dust storms.

When the images are taken, the spacecraft will be more than three times its normal science orbit distance from Mars, Graf noted. That being the case, the resolution will not be representative of the full capability of the instruments when they are in their final science orbit, he said. 

"But it is our first opportunity to fill the imaging apertures completely and with Mars, so it gives us a chance to test procedures and instrument settings," Graf explained. "We then have the five months of active aerobraking to refine procedures and work any issues. Our first priority, of course, remains getting started safely with aerobraking."

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