updated 3/9/2008 2:29:20 PM ET 2008-03-09T18:29:20

At least one pharmaceutical was detected in tests of treated drinking water supplies for 24 major metropolitan areas, according to an Associated Press survey of 62 major water providers and data obtained from independent researchers.

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Only 28 tested drinking water. Three of those said results were negative; Dallas says tests were conducted but results are not yet available. Thirty-four locations said no testing was conducted.

Test protocols varied widely. Some researchers looked only for one pharmaceutical or two; others looked for many.

Some water systems said tests had been negative, but the AP found independent research showing otherwise. Both prescription and non-prescription drugs were detected.

Because coffee and tobacco are so widely used, researchers say their byproducts are good indicators of the presence of pharmaceuticals. Thus, they routinely test for, and often find, both caffeine and nicotine’s metabolite cotinine more frequently than other drugs.

Here’s the list of metropolitan areas, with the number of pharmaceuticals detected and some examples of specific drugs that were found, or where tests were negative, not conducted or awaiting results:

Albuquerque, N.M.: tests negative

Arlington, Texas: 1 (unspecified pharmaceutical)

Atlanta: 3 (acetaminophen, caffeine and cotinine)

Austin, Texas: tests negative

Baltimore: no testing

Birmingham, Ala.: no testing

Boston: no testing

Charlotte, N.C.: no testing

Chicago: no testing

Cincinnati: 1 (caffeine)

Cleveland: no testing

Colorado Springs, Colo.: no testing

Columbus, Ohio: 5 (azithromycin, roxithromycin, tylosin, virginiamycin and caffeine)

Concord, Calif.: 2 (meprobamate and sulfamethoxazole)

Dallas: results pending

Denver: (unspecified antibiotics)

Detroit: (unspecified drugs)

El Paso, Texas: no testing

Fairfax, Va.: no testing

Fort Worth, Texas: no testing

Fresno, Calif.: no testing

Honolulu: no testing

Houston: no testing

Indianapolis: 1 (caffeine)

Jacksonville, Fla.: no testing

Kansas City, Mo.: no testing

Las Vegas: 3 (carbamazepine, meprobamate and phenytoin)

Long Beach, Calif.: 2 (meprobamate and phenytoin)

Los Angeles: 2 (meprobamate and phenytoin)

Louisville, Ky.: 3 (caffeine, carbamazepine and phenytoin)

Memphis, Tenn.: no testing

Mesa, Ariz.: no testing

Miami: no testing

Milwaukee: 1 (cotinine)

Minneapolis: 1 (caffeine)

Nashville, Tenn.: no testing

New Orleans: 3 (clofibric acid, estrone and naproxen)

New York City: no testing

Northern New Jersey: 7 (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, dehydronifedipine, diphenhydramine and sulfathiazole)

Oakland, Calif.: no testing

Oklahoma City: no testing

Omaha, Neb.: no testing

Orlando, Fla.: no testing

Philadelphia: 56 (including amoxicillin, azithromycin, carbamazepine, diclofenac, prednisone and tetracycline)

Phoenix: no testing

Portland, Ore.: 4 (acetaminophen, caffeine, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole)

Prince George’s and Montgomery counties, Md.: no testing

Riverside County, Calif.: 2 (meprobamate and phenytoin)

Sacramento, Calif.: no testing

San Antonio: no testing

San Diego: 3 (ibuprofen, meprobamate and phenytoin)

San Francisco: 1 (estradiol)

San Jose, Calif.: no testing

Santa Clara, Calif.: no testing

Seattle: no testing

Southern California: 2 (meprobamate and phenytoin)

Suffolk County, N.Y.: no testing

Tucson, Ariz.: 3 (carbamazepine, dehydronifedipine and sulfamethoxazole)

Tulsa, Okla.: no testing

Virginia Beach, Va.: tests negative

Washington, D.C.: 6 (carbamazepine, caffeine, ibuprofen, monensin, naproxen and sulfamethoxazole)

Wichita, Kan.: no testing.

© 2013 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

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