Image: War Veterans Memorial, Washington, D.C.
Associated Press
Located in West Potomac Park in Washington, D.C., south of the National Mall, the Korean War Veterans Memorial's visitation increased by more than 400,000 in 2008 compared with the 2003–2007 average.
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updated 5/21/2009 2:47:38 PM ET 2009-05-21T18:47:38

On Sunday of Memorial Day weekend, PBS' annual National Memorial Day Concert, broadcast from the West Lawn of the U.S. Capitol, will feature dignitaries and entertainers including Laurence Fishburne, Katie Holmes and Colin Powell. The show is expected to draw an audience of hundreds of thousands. The following Monday, the National Memorial Day Parade will also attract throngs along its route—the American Veterans center expects to increase from the 250,000 people who turned out last year.

Our updated list of America's most-visited memorials shows how Americans continue to honor their war dead—throughout the year. The National Parks Services attendance figures show that 2008 numbers remained comparable with averages from 2003 to 2007, and visitation at some memorials, such as the Vietnam Veterans Memorial and Korean War Veterans Memorial, spiked considerably. The Vietnam memorial in particular, overtook Arlington Cemetery and the National World War II Memorial in welcoming the most visitors.

While visitation at certain public monuments does peak on Memorial Day (at Arlington Cemetery’s Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, for example, an annual presidential wreath-laying ceremony draws large crowds), public war memorials attract steady traffic year-round, and the better-known monuments draw millions annually.

Washington, D.C.’s iconic war statues, walls and plazas dominate the top of the list. Gavriel Rosenfeld, Associate Professor of History at Fairfield University, refers to the nation’s capital as the “nerve center of memorials.” In addition to Arlington Cemetery (which itself contains dozens of monuments and memorials within its boundaries), the Washington, D.C. area is home to the National World War II Memorial, the Vietnam Veterans and Korean War Veterans Memorials, among many others.

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The architectural styles of this array of memorials comprise polar opposites within the space of a few miles. Rosenfeld says that the Vietnam Veterans Memorial and the National World War II Memorial represent distinctly different forms of commemoration. The former, a sunken, V-shaped black granite wall, inscribed with the names of the war’s casualties, takes what he calls a “humble aesthetic form” while the latter assumes a more “traditional, heroic style.”

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Situated on the National Mall between the Washington and Lincoln Monuments, the World War II Memorial was designed by Austrian-American architect Friedrich St. Florian and features a semicircle of pillars (representing the U.S. states of 1945) flanked by arches adorned with eagles and wreathes. Although it opened only a few years ago—in 2004—“it looks like it could have been built right after the war,” says Rosenfeld. “Its style is what many historians would call pompous or monumental—it’s hardly self-effacing.”

In fact, says Rosenfeld, “A lot historians distinguish between memorials and monuments. The latter are meant to be admired or looked up to, while memorials are more admonitory—to remind us not to forget a certain lesson.”

“I think memorials and monuments act as physical symbols of our reverence,” says Gina Gray, Director of Public Affairs at Arlington National Cemetery. In addition to the Tomb of the Unknowns, says Gray, the USS Maine Mast Memorial is one of the most heavily visited sites within Arlington. Dedicated in 1915, the memorial is built around the actual mast of the ship sunk in Havana, Cuba, in 1898 (its destruction was a catalyst for the Spanish-American War).

Image: World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument, Oahu, Hawaii
John Sfondilias  /  iStockphoto
Completed in 1961, the USS Arizona Memorial sits atop the submerged remains of the battleship. The Arizona is now part of a larger monument called the World War II Valor—part of the Pacific National Monument. Visitors: 1,407,879.
Some of the most-visited memorial sites on our list make history present in a dramatic fashion— Valley Forge and the Shiloh National Military Park host regular “living history” events. At Valley Forge, costumed interpreters talk about 18th-century soldier life, and at Shiloh, re-enactors depict Union and Confederate camp scenes.

Rosenfeld explains memorials’ referential function this way: “Any time you look at an historical event from the past that is defined by suffering, bloodshed and horror—it underscores why we are grateful… it reminds us of how bad things were in the past, and breaks up the humdrum of our daily lives by telling us about a period in history when dramatic things were happening.” Unlike in Europe, he explains, “you hardly ever see signs of ruins—or signs of failure and destruction” in the American landscape. “Without those visible reminders of the destructiveness of battle,” he adds, “it’s easy to forget about the history and the true horror of war.”

Image: Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, Va.
Michael Mills  /  iStockphoto
85,000 were wounded and 1,000 killed at this aggregation of four Civil War battle sites in Virginia; the NPS calls it "the bloodiest landscape in North America." Several historic buildings and preserved cannons, as well as the Fredericksburg National Cemetery, are included in the park. Visitors: 473,841.
The Veterans of Foreign Wars’ Joe Davis comments on another function of war memorials and monuments. “War memorials—from the national level all the way down to the local—are a way of saying thank you [to soldiers] for their service, and thank you to military families who have sacrificed as well.”

Davis describes a further reason the NPS memorial sites may receive hundreds of thousands—and sometimes millions—of visitors per year. Commemorating or mourning war only in private, he says, would be missing an important part of the picture: “Monuments share the experience of war with the public,” he says. “And war is a shared experience.”

NOTE:
The National Park Service’s data on 2008 visitation to its various park “units” was used to compile a list of the 15 most-visited “memorial” destinations. While the NPS war-related sites and monuments have numerous designations (some are dubbed National Monuments or Memorials, others are National Historic Places; still others are called National Military Parks), we chose the top war-related sites, regardless of their official categorization. We compared 2008 numbers with the figures from the previous story, which used 2003–2007 averages.

While we have tracked data exclusively for sites within the National Park Service system, there are, of course, hundreds of war memorials and monuments that do not fall under its jurisdiction. A prominent example is the National World War One Memorial and Museum, located in Kansas City, Missouri, which receives several hundred thousand annual visitors (including attendance at on-site events). And National Park Service spokesperson Butch Street explains that the agency also oversees more than 100 “Related Areas,” such as the African American Civil War Memorial in Washington, D.C., which do not report visitation figures to NPS.

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