Investigative reporter Bill Dedman of
By Bill Dedman Investigative reporter
NBC News
updated 7/17/2012 9:24:15 PM ET 2012-07-18T01:24:15

Below are extensive notes and other details to accompany the photo narrative from NBC Newscom, " The Clarks: An American story of wealth, scandal and mystery ."

This page adds a slide-by-slide annotation, with additional information and documentation. The slide-by-slide notes are accompanied by a list of documents, books and other sources consulted.

A printable version of the photo narrative is available here .

And an update on the Huguette Clark story is available in a two-part series beginning here, " At 104, mysterious heiress is alone now ."

W.A. Clark Memorial Library
Notes on this slide: Accounts of Clark's wealth vary, particularly because so much of it was still underground in the mines. A New York Times study of the richest, in February 1907, placed John D. Rockefeller first, but allowed that "many believe Senator William Clark may prove eventually to be the richest man in the United States."

John L. Wiley
Bellosguardo has been a mysterious presence in Santa Barbara, out of view on the oceanside cliff. It sits next to Santa Barbara Cemetery, though a high wall separates them, so not even the dead can see into the Clark estate. The address is 1407 E. Cabrillo Blvd. in Santa Barbara. The labyrinthine garden is at top right. Behind that was a children's playhouse, greenhouse and a large home for the caretaker. Near the house, toward the top left of this photo, is a tennis court and an area for outdoor concerts. The great lawn slopes down the hill to the right. The true value of Bellosquardo won't be known unless it is sold, and it's not for sale, but several Realtors said they are confident that it would fetch at least $100 million. The Santa Barbara News-Press reported in 2006 that a cash offer of $100 million had been rejected. The size of the house and land come from tax assessor's records. Joan Pollard, stepdaughter of former caretaker Albert Hoelscher and daughter of estate bookkeeper Lorraine Hoelscher, said her father worked at the estate for nearly 50 years, and her mother for 42 years, during which time no Clarks came to visit. A map and aerial views are available from Bing.
Barbara Cleary's Realty Guild
The address is 104 Dan's Highway in New Canaan. The house cannot be seen from the road. The name Le Beau Château is given in the real estate listing. A zoning attorney for Huguette Clark told the New Canaan zoning board that she had never moved into the house. The board approved a subdivision; a new owner will be able to keep the property together or to break it into 10 lots. Details on the size of the house and the tax payments come from assessor records and the real estate listing. The Realtor's Web site for the home, with more photos, is at A map and aerial views are available from Bing.
Bill Dedman  /
The address is 907 Fifth Avenue. Real estate broker A. Laurance Kaiser IV, who has sold apartments in the building, described the eighth floor in an interview as "the largest apartment on Fifth Avenue." He said it's a lovely building with high ceilings and wood-burning fireplaces. He estimated that her 12th-floor apartment would sell for at least $40 million, and the full eighth floor for much more. The layout of the apartment is from Alpern's "Apartments for the Affluent." A map and aerial views are available from Bing.
Newell family collection
Montana was then part of the Idaho territory. There's no record of Civil War service for Clark; the unfriendly Mangam biography, "The Clarks: An American Phenomenon," alleges he deserted or was discharged, but other accounts suggest he just went West as many young men did.
"The Clarks"
Clark's height (5 feet, 8 and one-half inches) is noted on his passport application. That may be generous. Biographies usually list him at 5 feet 7. The quotation (" magnetic as last year's bird's nest.") is sourced by Michael Malone in "The Battle for Butte" to Warren G. Davenport, "Butte and Montana beneath the X-Ray," p. 173.
New-York Historical Society
Clark took ore samples from four claims in Butte with him to Columbia's School of Mines. Before he ran for the Senate, Clark also served as grand master of the state masonic lodge, leader of a campaign to capture the Nez Perce Indians (though his party saw no fighting), president of the state constitutional convention, and leader of the campaign to name Helena as the state capital. Every time Clark would win a victory, historian Malone describes, he would buy drinks for all the town, with bar tabs of $30,000 or more. After Helena was named the capital, his carriage was pulled through town, not by horses but by the cheering crowd. In Butte, one can spend a night in Clark's mansion, at 219 W. Granite St., which is operated under the name Copper King Mansion Bed and Breakfast.
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Clark's railroad car was No. 2001, built by Pullman in 1905. The mining town of Jerome, Ariz., was known as the "wickedest town on earth," until copper prices fell. It's now down to some 350 people. The nearby planned community of Clarkdale still has the Clark mansion, which served as the set for a film, "The Brothel." Clark's daughters sold the mine, which closed in the 1930s. Clark had owned the mine nearly outright; he was not one to issue shares.
Montana Historical Society
Some historians say Clark may have offended Daly by making an ethnic slur against one of his associates, but the historians say no one knows for sure how their dispute began. Daly did not seek political office, but he was intent on denying it to Clark. Both bought newspapers to influence politics, even "renting" newspapers by buying them before an election, editorializing for their owners, and then selling them back to the original owners afterward.
Montana Historical Society
The aide who said, "We'll put the old man in the Senate, or the poorhouse," is usually described as his son, Charles. The initials "W.A.C." may belong to another legislator, the intended recipient of this particular bribe, not Clark himself. Dozens of witnesses were brought from Montana to Washington to testify before a Senate committee, which found that there was evidence of bribery. (Clark, a banker, claimed that he routinely destroyed his checks and had no records.) But bank records of others showed that legislators who began the session with debts had returned home with $10,000 or $20,000 or $30,000 in profit. Clark then resigned. He condemned "the most devilish persecution that any man has ever been subjected to in the history of any civilized country."
Clinedinst  /  The National Magazine
Time magazine claimed that the word among legislators was, "Every man who votes for Clark is to be paid, and the men who vote for him without being paid are fools."
Library of Congress
Twain didn't mention that one of Clark's Montana opponents, Henry Huttleston Rogers, had rescued Twain from bankruptcy. Rogers and Standard Oil cronies set up the Amalgamated Copper Company, which defrauded shareholders. As an insider, Twain profited from the Amalgamated deal. Twain cast his essay as if he was offended by having to listen to Clark drone on at a banquet, but his wallet may have been talking. Twain and co-author Charles Dudley Warner coined the term "the Gilded Age" in their 1873 book by that name.
The Butte Miner
His first wife, Katharine or "Kate," was his childhood sweetheart. In regard to the marriage to Anna, no one has found evidence of a wedding date. The official story was that they were married in Marseilles. According to the Mangam tell-all book, even after Clark's death, when Anna provided to the probate court a proof of her marriage, all she could offer was a post-nuptial declaration they had signed in 1909.
The Butte Miner
There is uncertainty on Anna's age at the time she met Clark. Most accounts put their meeting in 1893, just before or just after his wife's death; she would have turned 15 that year. Also, the Clark faction often told the story as if her father had died, but her mother's obituary puts his death in 1896. Her birthdate has been unknown, but a birth certificate for an Anna "Lashpell" in Calumet, Mich., has the right first names of her parents, and matches the date she gave all her life, and the birthdate on her cemetery record: March 10, 1878, all of which indicates that she was 23 at the time of the supposed wedding, May 25, 1901. Huguette Marcelle Clark's first name is presumably a nod to her father's Huguenot heritage.
The Anaconda Standard
His children's reaction to the news of their father's second marriage is described in detail by Mangam, who quotes from the letters and gives a great deal of detail about those children. The four children from the first marriage who survived to adulthood were Mary Joaquina (May) Clark Culver Kling de Brabant (1870-1939); Charles (Charlie) Walker Clark (1871-1933); Katharine (or Katherine) Louise Clark Morris (1875-date of death unknown); and William Andrews Clark Jr. (1877-1934). The younger son, W.A. Jr., was well known in Los Angeles, where he formed the Los Angeles Philharmonic and was its early benefactor. He collected rare books, particularly works by and about Oscar Wilde, and donated his collection and a building to the University of California, Los Angeles, where it still maintains the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, named for his father. He also donated money for Clark Hall at his alma mater, the University of Virginia, with eye-catching murals; the building at first held the law school, now the Department of Environmental Sciences. Few male heirs survived long after W.A. Clark to carry forward the Clark name.
New-York Historical Society
The marriage announcement solved a riddle: Why had the widowed Clark, whose children were grown, been building a great house. Sources vary on the year the Clarks moved into 962 Fifth Avenue. It was well underway when the marriage was announced in 1904. Photos of the apparently finished interior were published in 1907, but construction stretched on to 1912, because Clark kept changing the plans to make it grander. Besides Clark's Folly, some called it Clark's Hobby. Unsatisfied with the charges for stone, Clark bought a New England quarry. He also bought the bronze company that was making the doors.
Corcoran Gallery of Art
The salon is on view at the Corcoran Gallery in Washington, which also rents it out for corporate meetings and fundraisers. The panelings came from an actual apartment in Paris, but the room was square; Clark wanted to fit it into a rectangular space, so he had more panels constructed. The old Yankee Stadium was built in 1922-1923.
Edgar Degas, "The Dance Class," 1873, Corcoran Gallery
Clark's choices were conventional, and cautious, historians say. He bought only a few of the "modern" painters, the Impressionists.
New-York Historical Society
The Irwin poem appeared in Collier's magazine. Tonopah is in Arizona. Note the presence of both an automobile and a horse-drawn carriage in this undated photo; Clark was said to be afraid of riding in autos, and was injured in one crash with Anna.
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington
The gallery walls were lined with velvet. The paintings were arranged stacked one  above the other. Clark wasn't much interested in the opinions of art curators on cataloguing or arranging paintings by type or period; he hung the art wherever he liked.
The New York Times
The Clark quotation about Anna's shyness comes from the Butte Minor's belated announcement of their wedding; Clark gave this as one of the reasons for not announcing the marriage earlier. Relatives describe Huguette's doll collection, with dresses from France.
Ship's registry from Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation
Historians have said they were uncertain where Andrée was born, perhaps in France or Algeria, but this ship's registry seems to be the first document on the question, setting the birth in Spain. The Clark's listed 10 servants in the 1920 census, from Norway, Ireland, England, Scotland and, of course, France. Concerning travel in that era, Corcoran conservator Dare Myers Hartwell makes an interesting observation in the museum's survey of the Clark collection: "It should be noted that at the beginning of the new century Clark was simultaneously managing his business interests in the West; serving in the United States Senate in Washington; planning a multimillion-dollar mansion in New York; collecting art and furnishings for said mansion; and courting and marrying his second wife in Paris. When one considers that all his travel was done by train and ship, this was quite a feat." And, one might add, Clark was at that point well into his 60s.
Montana Historical Society
Louise Amelia Andrée Clark died at Rangeley Lake, Maine, where she was summering with her mother and sister, according to The New York Times. Huguette went with her father to a ceremony in 1920 when he donated 135 acres in Briarcliff, N.Y., for the first national Girl Scout camp, Camp Andrée Clark; photographs of the ceremony are in the Baeyens book. A New York World article in December 1920 said Andrée had been a Girl Scout. At the ceremony, Huguette sat gravely on the floor among the Scouts, the World said. Huguette would later make her own donation to Scouting, the Rancho Alegre property near Santa Barbara. Ian Devine's comments are from an interview with Columbia Gardens, an amusement park that Clark built in Butte, has long since been dismantled.
The New York Times
Miss Spence's Boarding and Day School for Girls, now The Spence School, has had many famous alumnae, including actress Gwyneth Paltrow.
The New York Times
Clark's last will and testament is available upon request from Surrogate's Court in Manhattan; Anna's, too, can be seen there.
Bill Dedman  /
Though large, his mausoleum is by no means the largest at Woodlawn. The cemetery allows the public to visit the mausoleum grounds and steps without appointment; no entry to the building is allowed. The Clark orphans home in Butte was named for a Clark son from his first marriage who died young; the Clark home for working women in Los Angeles was named for Clark's mother; and the Clark kindergarten in New York for his first wife.
New-York Historical Society
Clark's will gave Anna and Huguette nearly three years to vacate the house (until Huguette reached age 21), but they moved soon after his death. The art had been sold, and the house was more than they needed. They had trouble finding a buyer; it was too expensive to operate, and also expensive to tear down. Finally a buyer was found for "less than $3 million," The New York Times reported. Detailed sketches of the interior were commissioned, and the public was allowed to tour the home before it was destroyed. The book "Gilded Mansions" gives the best description of the era of Fifth Avenue palaces, with a short, disparaging description of this house.
Bill Dedman  /
Anna also had received an unknown amount through a post-nuptial agreement, as well as the furnishings from their Paris apartment on Avenue Victor-Hugo. Huguette's allowance is described in her father's will. Entombed at Woodlawn, according to cemetery records, are William A. Clark (d. 1925, age 86); first wife Katharine L. (d. 1893, age 50); unnamed infant (d. 1874, 8 days); Jesse (d. 1878, age 2); son Francis Paul (d. 1896, age 16); son Charles W. (d. 1933, age 61); daughter-in-law Katharine (d. 1904, age 31); second wife Anna E. (d. 1963, age 85); and daughter Andrée (d. 1919, listed in the cemetery record as age 18, it appears, but actually just about to turn 17 when she died, if her birthdate given consistently on ship's registries is accurate).
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, "Repose," Corcoran Gallery
Corot was Clark's favorite -- he bought dozens, most of them authentic. Clark had established ties to the Corcoran while serving as a senator, and had lent it much of his collection while his New York house was being built; he served on the Corcoran board of trustees after he left the Senate. Still, it was the second choice in his will behind the more Met, which was just up Fifth Avenue from his house. The Corcoran guide, "Antiquities to Impressionism," gives a full account of his history with the museum.
Bill Dedman  /
The bronze doors for the mausoleum were made under Clark's instructions in 1897, before he began his second family. Clark had met the Boston artist, Paul Wayland Bartlett, in Paris. The New York Times of Nov. 7, 1897, described the sculptor at work; it didn't say who the woman in bronze might be, but that she represented modesty. It was cast by the Henry-Bonnard Bronze Co., which Clark later bought while it did work on his house. The quotation on success is from "Famous Leaders of Industry: The Life Stories of Boys Who Have Succeeded."
William Merritt Chase, Corcoran Gallery of Art
Though Horatio Alger's characters usually made it only so far as the middle class, Clark went much further. Baeyens, the author and grandson, served in the French foreign service, and was consul general to the U.S. The consul's office is steps from the site of Clark's old home on Fifth Avenue.
Library of Congress
The Supreme Court dismissed a case against Clark for cutting timber on federal land, on a technicality. All mine owners were in great need of timber to support the mine walls. The full quotation from Clark on the use of natural resources, from a speech he made when he retired from the Senate, is this: "In rearing the great structure of empire on the Western Hemisphere we are obliged to avail ourselves of all the resources at our command. The requirements of this great utilitarian age demand it. Those who succeed us can well take care of themselves." Clark's labor relations were mixed; he supported the 8-hour workday, but only when it came time to use it as a platform in a campaign for the Senate.
Library of Congress
Clark's will does make small allowances to charities, the gifts to Clark-named kindergarten and homes for women and orphans. And he gave his art, of course, to the Corcoran, where it can be viewed by the public in the Clark wing. But he gave no indication of subscribing to Carnegie's theories about dividing one's life into three stages: education, making money, and giving it away. Though he lived to age 86, Clark never got to stage three.
The New York Times
The marriage license identifies Gower as a law student. The engagement announcement added, "Mr. Gower was graduated from Trinity School in New York, and from Princeton University in 1925. Mr. Gower is associated in business with the banking firm of J. & W. Seligman." His father, controller of the United Verde mine, retired in 1931, a year after the divorce. The exhibition of Huguette's seven paintings is listed in Corcoran records, from April 28 to May 19, 1929; the museum staff said recently they have no paintings by her in the collection. The Associated Press reported in September 1931, "Mrs. Huguette Clark, who inherited millions from her father, William A. Clark, copper magnate and senator, has won considerable recognition as an artist. Her paintings received high praise from critics at an exhibition at the Corcoran galleries in Washington last year and now she is planning an exhibition in Paris. She is an accomplished musician."
Pictometry International
The marriage license shows that a Catholic priest performed the ceremony, and shows the ages of the couple. Huguette's donation to the city was described in the newspapers. It's not clear where the couple went on a honeymoon. A ship's registry shows the mother and daughter in residence by 1928 at 907 Fifth Avenue, just five blocks from the site of the old mansion, which was torn down a year earlier.
The Los Angeles Times
A ship's registry shows the post-divorce trip to Hawaii by mother and daughter, leaving Aug. 16, five days after the divorce, from San Francisco. The Irish nobleman was the Duke of Leinster, according to The New York Times of Jan. 11, 1931. Box subscriptions for the Metropolitan Opera were reported annually in The Times. Huguette and her mother had shared a box at the Metropolitan Opera with the E.H. Harrimans of Union Pacific Railroad. An article in The New York Herald blames William Gower for the divorce, while the Mangam book blames Huguette; legally, she filed for divorce and he did not contest it. No alimony was paid.
Huguette Clark
This photo, dated by the Associated Press on the day of her divorce in August 1930, is the last known photo of Huguette Clark. Others may read the photo differently, but it appears she is tightly clenching her hands, enduring just one photo before embarking for Hawaii. Perhaps behind her that's a ship's handrail or a gangway.
John L. Wiley,
Anna Clark had Bellosguardo torn down and rebuilt from 1932 to 1936, so the house today is not the one in which Huguette was married. A family member described seeing the paintings of Andrée. Ms. Pollard, the former caretaker's stepdaughter, said in an interview with that she saw paintings in the walk-in vault, when she was sent to fetch some of her stepfather's papers after he died in 1982. She said the caretaker's family thought very highly of Anna and Huguette Clark, who would send flowers on special occasions, but they never saw the Clarks.
"In the Roses," Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 1882
This Renoir was rejected by the man who had commissioned it; he ordered a second painting of his wife, Madame Leon Clapisson, by whose name this painting is often known. It was not seen from 1937 until Huguette Clark sold it in 2003, according to published reports. The buyer was reported to be Steve Wynn, the Las Vegas casino magnate; his staff said he does not comment on acquisitions. In addition to the gift of land to the Scouts, Huguette made the largest gift of the year, $2,500, in 1931 to the Times Neediest Cases fund. And she and her mother each gave $5,000 to Democrats for Willkie, supporting  Republican challenger Wendell Willkie for president in 1940, when he was urging greater American intervention to stop Germany; this policy presumably appealed to the French-born Huguette. The tax lien, and its quick clearance, are recorded in property records. Two states show Huguette Clark on their list of people with unclaimed funds: New York and California; the amount in California is a refund from Sears, for $55.
Barbara Cleary's Realty Guild
Le Beau Château, purchased in 1951, has been the subject of much speculation in New Canaan, where no one has met the owner. The most popular story seems to be that Huguette bought it during an engagement, but that her husband died on the honeymoon. There is no record of any such second engagement or marriage, and her first marriage ended in divorce 20 years before she bought this house.
Barbara Cleary's Realty Guild
Only the caretaker houses can be seen from the street, Dan's Highway (formerly High Ridge Road). The driveway then disappears into the woods. The home was built for former U.S. Sen. David A. Reed of Pennsylvania, who bought the property in December 1936, according to The New York Times of Dec. 29, 1936. The home was completed in the summer of 1938, according to The Times on Aug. 7, 1938, which said, "Among the unusual features are: a linen chamber, the walls of which bear glass-enclosed shelves; a chamber in the basement for the drying of draperies;  air conditioning for the dining and living rooms, and chromium-plated tubes in all bathrooms for drying and warming towels." The architect was the firm of Voorhees, Gmelin & Walker of New York, and the contractor The Miller-Reed Company of New York and Norwalk, Conn.
Barbara Cleary's Realty Guild
A grand staircase at Le Beau Château, just inside the front door to the left. Baeyens, Clark's great-great-grandson through first son Charles, spoke by phone with from his home in Austria.
Barbara Cleary's Realty Guild
The rooms are enormous at Le Beau Château, made for entertaining, with herringbone floors. Devine, Clark's great-great-grandson through daughter Mary, is a marketing executive in New York City; he was interviewed by
Barbara Cleary's Realty Guild
The view from inside Le Beau Château, looking out to the driveway. Most of the windows were removed and reglazed in 2000.
Bill Dedman  /
The 1915 apartment building, by J.E.R. Carpenter, is near the Alice-in-Wonderland statue in Central Park, a beloved spot for many. Baeyens, the nephew and author of a book on the family, said in an interview with that he had met Anna in Paris after World War II, and has spoken on the phone with Huguette through the years, that she spoke perfect French with no accent. He said that she would only occasionally let out any information, then withdraw if he pressed her to learn more about her father. Still, he loved talking with his "Tante Huguette," the only link to his family's past. Their contacts diminished in recent years.
"Apartments for the Affluent," Andrew Alpern
An courtyard is the open space in the center of the building, providing sunlight to interior rooms. The building originally had only two apartments per floor, but all but Huguette Clark's have since been subdivided. This floorplan for the 12th floor shows the following rooms in the shaded apartment, at lower left: public hall by the twin elevators at the lower right corner of the courtyard, then an entry leading to a long gallery (47 feet by 19 feet), which flows directly into a reception room, then a living room to the left and small conservatory and dining room to the right, four bedrooms on a private hall at the bottom right, and then at top left a pantry, kitchen, servant's hall, five servant's rooms, service elevator, and stairs to the roof.
"Le Sénateur Qui Aimait La France," André Baeyens
Bock commented in a brief interview with in his office in Midtown Manhattan. He did not respond to written questions sent to him about Miss Clark, her health and finances.
Copper King Mansion
This photo of Huguette as a teenager was said to be made in Montana in about 1923, the year she turned 17.

Documents and public records consulted:
Marriage license, Santa Barbara County, for William Gower and Huguette Marcelle Clark, Aug. 18, 1928.

Divorce decree, Second Judicial District Court, Reno, Nev., for William Gower and Huguette M. Clark Gower, Aug. 11, 1930.

Wills of William Andrews Clark and Anna E. Clark, Surrogate's Court, 31 Chambers Street, New York, N.Y. (Student Sara Germano from Columbia University assisted with research on Anna Clark.)

Woodlawn Cemetery, lot cards and records for the Clark mausoleum, and "Map of the Woodlawn Cemetery," available from the cemetery office, Bronx, N.Y. The map ignores Clark entirely in its rollcall of the famous, though it shows his mausoleum on the map. The mausoleum is at the center of the cemetery, at Central Avenue and Prospect Avenue.

Passenger ship records and W.A. Clark's passport application: (database online), National Archives, Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service.

United States Census, records of 1880, 1900, 1920, 1930, via (database online).

Zoning records, New Canaan, Conn.

Property assessor records, New Canaan and Santa Barbara.

André Baeyens, "From Copper to Carots: The Two Lives of William Andrews Clark, Senator of Montana," Oct. 10, 2005, President's Lecture Series, University of Montana. Lecture by the senator's great-grandson. A video of the lecture is available for viewing only, not copying, in the Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library on campus.

"The Battle for Butte: Mining and Politics on the Northern Frontier, 1864-1906," Michael P. Malone, 1981, University of Washington Press. This seems to be the most careful and readable history of William Andrews Clark and his antagonists. The late Malone was president of Montana State University.

"Antiquities to Impressionism: The William A. Clark Collection," Corcoran Gallery of Art, 2001. Includes an essay by André Baeyens, Clark's great-grandson, who has written his own book. The Corcoran published a separate book on the Salon moved to the gallery from the Clark home.

"Le Sénateur Qui Aimait La France," (The Senator Who Loved France), 2005, by André Baeyens, published only in French by Scali. A friendly account of the Clark family, by his great-grandson, a former consul general from France to the United States. Includes many details and family photographs.

"The Clarks, An American Phenomenon, 1939, by William D. Mangam, 1941, Silver Bow Press. In many ways a scurrilous book, though not necessarily an inaccurate one. Mangam worked for 30 years for one of Clark's sons. A Clark associate, apparently unhappy, Mangam tells tales about Clark and his children. His scandalous stories are unsourced, but he gets details so right elsewhere that one wonders how close he is to the truth. He quotes from letters and clearly had contacts with Clark's first family, though sometimes his dates differ from the public record; those errors have been carried over into other histories, for lack of a competing account. Available on CD-ROM from Quintin Publications, Orange Park, Fla.

"Apartments for the Affluent: A Historical Survey of Buildings in New York," Andrew Alpern, 1975 McGraw Hill. Includes a one-page description and floorplan of Huguette Clark's apartment building, 907 Fifth Avenue, as well as the other grand apartments, past and present. This book is more readily available in the paperback, called "New York's Fabulous Luxury Apartments, 1987, from Dover.

"Luxury Apartment Houses of Manhattan: An Illustrated History," 1992, is architect Andrew Alpern's companion volume, with a rich narrative of these elegant buildings, their builders and their occupants.

"Bonanza Rich: Lifestyles of the Western Mining Entrepreneurs," Richard H. Peterson, 1991, University of Idaho Press. A comparison of the ways the Gilded Age's winners spent their money.

"Famous Leaders of Industry. The Life Stories of Boys Who Have Succeeded," Edwin Wildman, 1920, The Page Company. A how-to book on becoming a Horatio Alger hero, with short profiles of Clark, P.T. Barnum and 24 others. Includes Clark's advice on success.

"Gilded Mansions: Grand Architecture and High Society," Wayne Craven, 2009, W.W. Norton & Company. A beautiful, 382-page guided tour of the mansions of the Vanderbilts, Fricks, and others. Clark's Folly gets a back-handed couple of pages at the very end.

"The War of the Copper Kings: Greed, Power and Politics: the Billion-dollar Battle for Butte, Montana, the Richest Hill on earth," C.B. Glasscock, 1935, Riverbend Publishing. Covers the same territory as Malone, in a more freewheeling style but less well documented. But Glasscock grabbed the book title that Malone said he wished he'd had!

"Experience Jerome: The Mogules, Miners and Mistresses of Cleopatra Hill," Jeanette Rodda and Nancy R. Smith, 1990, Thorne Enterprises. A thin volume focusing on mining in Jerome, and the lives led there.

"Adventures with Peons, Princes & Tycoons," Marshall Bond, Jr., 1983, Star Rover House. Bond describes his amusing encounters with the wealthy, including an anecdote of a dinner at Clark's Bellosguardo in Santa Barbara in 1924. He said Fisher's orchestra from Los Angeles played jazz, and the food was "indescribable," including Lobster Newburg by the Clarks' French chef. "Mrs. Clark took me into the study to meet the Senator, who was slumped in an easy chair, scowling like an ancient bird of prey. ... We had the shortest conversation in history, consisting of a mutual exchange of one word, 'Hello.' The walls of the study were embellished by three splendid portraits, all of Senator Clark, and they are still hanging there today." Bond also said that "Clark had bushy whiskers and an elegant mustache which he took pains to keep in perfect shape. Three or four times a week he would drive to the San Marcos Barber Shop in the old Arlington Hotel (destroyed in the earthquake of 1925) to have the tips of his mustache waxed and trimmed. ... He came in a limousine with a chauffeur and armed bodyguard, followed by another limousine with a chauffeur and another armed bodyguard." When asked why he didn't tip the barber as well as his son had, Clark said that his son had a rich father.

"Mark Twain in Eruption," Mark Twain, edited by Bernard DeVoto, 1922, Harper & Brothers. Includes Twain's essay on Clark, "Senator Clark of Montana."

"The Singular Mark Twain," Fred Kaplan, 2003, Doubleday. Biography describes Twain's friendship with benefactor Henry Huttleston Rogers, and Twain's profits from the Amalgamated deal in which many other shareholders were defrauded.

"The Wealthy 100: From Benjamin Franklin to Bill Gates -- A Ranking of the Richest Americans, Past and Present," Michael Klepper and Robert Gunther, 1996, Citadel Press. Other sources put Clark's wealth much higher.

Mary M. Farrell, "William Andrews Clark," master's thesis, University of Washington, 1933.

"William Andrews Clark, Jr.: His Cultural Legacy," pamphlet including papers by William E. Conway and Robert Stevenson, William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, 1985. An account of Clark's second son, who donated his library of rare books to the University of California, Los Angeles, and was the great benefactor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic.

Newspaper articles from The Butte Minor, Anaconda Standard, Butte Post, New York Times, New York Herald, New Canaan Advertiser, Los Angeles Times, Hartford Courant, and others, in the collections of the New-York Historical Society, New Canaan Historical Society, Montana Historical Society, Butte-Silver Bow Public Archives and New York Public Library.

"The House on the Hill," Josh Conviser, Santa Barbara magazine, August-September 2009, tells the story of the Clark estate, Bellosguardo, in Santa Barbara.

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