Image: ET-122 in VAB
NASA
The external fuel tank for NASA's final scheduled space shuttle mission is moved into the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on Tuesday. The tank is to be attached to Endeavour for its flight to the International Space Station in February. Although Endeavour's mission is currently the last shuttle flight on the schedule, another flight (by Atlantis) would be added if Congress authorizes the money.
By Correspondent
NBC News
updated 9/29/2010 12:00:04 PM ET 2010-09-29T16:00:04
Commentary

Troubled NASA leaders say Wednesday's scheduled vote in the House could clarify the space agency's future and save 2,500 immediate high-tech jobs.

Those concerned are hopeful that House lawmakers will approve the NASA authorization bill already approved by the Senate.

"For the sake of providing certainty, stability and clarity to the NASA work force and larger space community, I felt it was better to consider a flawed bill than no bill at all," said Rep. Bart Gordon, D-Tenn., chairman of the House Science and Technology Committee that oversees NASA policy.

The Senate's NASA plan calls for building an early heavy lift rocket, which insiders say is a win-win because it does several critical, strategic things for the future of human spaceflight:

  • It allows America to fly beyond low Earth orbit by 2016 and opens up the possibility to reach multiple destinations throughout the solar system, including the moon, asteroids, Mars and gravitational balance points in deep space. All these destinations are touched upon in President Barack Obama's plan for NASA spaceflight.
  • It serves as a bridge for the veteran launch team at Florida's spaceport to transition from the space shuttle to the future — "and not to repeat the mistakes President Nixon made following the Apollo moon landings," a veteran launch director said.
  • Specifically, the Senate plan would generate 2,500 high-tech near-term jobs to enable test flights as early as 2013.
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At this point the Senate's plan would retain a seasoned, well-trained launch team instead of seeing this highly skilled workforce relocate to other high-tech fields.

The House authorization vote is expected to come Wednesday afternoon or evening. Because of the special rules that govern the vote, a two-thirds majority is required for approval. A separate NASA appropriations bill is likely to be considered after the November elections.

Jay Barbree is NBC News' Cape Canaveral correspondent and the only reporter who has broadcast every mission flown by American astronauts for the same television network. He is also the author of numerous books about space exploration, including his latest work, "Live from Cape Canaveral."

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Explainer: Out-of-this-world destinations

  • NASA

    We are headed to Mars ... eventually. But first we need the rocket technology and human spaceflight savvy to get us there safely and efficiently. And the best way to do that is to visit places such as asteroids, our moon, a Martian moon and even no man's lands in space called "Lagrange points," NASA administrator Charles Bolden explained during the unveiling of the agency's revised vision for space exploration.

    The vision shifts focus away from a return to the moon as part of a steppingstone to Mars in favor of what experts call a "flexible path" to space exploration, pushing humans ever deeper into the cosmos.

    Click the "Next" label to check out six other potential destinations astronauts may visit in the years and decades to come en route to Mars.

    — John Roach, msnbc.com contributor

  • Lessons to learn on the space station

    NASA

    The cooperation required to build and maintain the International Space Station will be a key to propelling humans on to Mars, according to Louis Friedman, co-founder of The Planetary Society. The society is a space advocacy organization that supports the flexible path to space exploration. In fact, the space station itself could be a training ground for Mars-bound astronauts.

    Astronauts can spend ever longer blocks of time on the station to gain experience in long-duration flights, for example. They could also practice extravehicular activities akin to those expected on a Mars mission, Friedman noted.

  • Lunar orbit, a test of new technology

    NASA

    Lunar orbit, too, is a familiar destination for human spaceflight, but a return to the familiar with new technology would allow astronauts to test the engineering of systems designed to go deeper into space, according to Friedman.

    A return to the moon is still in the cards on the flexible path, but going to lunar orbit first defers the cost of developing the landing and surface systems needed to get in and out of the lunar gravity well, according to experts.

    The famous "Earthrise" image shown here was made in 1968 during Apollo 8, the first human voyage to orbit the moon.

  • Stable no man's lands in space

    NASA / WMAP Science Team

    There are places in space where the gravitational pulls of Earth and the moon, or Earth and the sun, have a balancing effect on a third body in orbit. Those five locations, known as Lagrange points, could offer relatively stable parking spots for astronomical facilities such as space telescopes or satellites. Human spaceflights to these points would allow astronauts to service these instruments.

    In addition, space experts believe a trip to a Lagrange point could serve as a training mission for astronauts headed to points deeper in space, such as an asteroid. Nevertheless, reaching a Lagrange point would be more of a technical achievement than a scientific achievement, according to Friedman. "It is an empty spot in space," he said.

  • Visit an asteroid near you?

    Image: Paraffin candles
    Dan Durda  /  FIAAA

    The first stop astronauts may make in interplanetary space is one of the asteroids that cross near Earth's orbit. Scientists have a keen interest in the space rocks because of the threat that one of them could strike Earth with devastating consequences. An asteroid mission would allow scientists to better understand what makes the rocks tick, and thus how to best divert one that threatens to smack our planet.

    Humans have also never been to an asteroid, which would make such a visit an exciting first, noted Friedman. "Imagine how interesting it will be to see an astronaut step out of a spacecraft and down onto an asteroid and perform scientific experiments," he said. What's more, since asteroids have almost no gravity, an asteroid encounter would be like docking with the space station, which doesn't require a heavy-lift rocket for the return. That makes an asteroid a potentially less expensive destination than the surface of the moon.

  • Back to the moon?

    NASA via Getty Images

    The moon-Mars path of human space exploration originally envisioned the moon as a training ground for a mission to the Red Planet. While the flexible-path strategy broadens the training field, the moon remains a candidate destination, according to NASA.

    Several other nations also have the moon's surface in their sights, including Japan, India and China. Some experts fear the dedicated lunar programs of these nations will eventually leave the United States in the dust as it focuses on an ambiguous flexible path.

    Friedman, of The Planetary Society, said NASA should support the lunar programs of Japan, India and China as part of team building for an international Mars mission, but sees no reason for NASA to focus on the moon. "We've done that already and that was Apollo," he said.

  • Martian moon a final pit stop?

    NASA / JPL-Caltech / UA

    Before astronauts go all the way to Mars, there's reason to make a final stop at one of its moons, Phobos or Deimos. The two moons are less than 20 miles across at their widest, which means landing on them would be less expensive than the Red Planet itself.

    Friedman used to consider a mission to a Martian moon nonsensical - akin to going to the base camp of Mount Everest instead of going to the top of the mountain. "I've now turned myself around on that, because you do go to the base camp and you do actually conduct training activities there before you attempt the summit," he said.

    "By all means go there," he added. "Test out your rendezvous and docking at Mars, conduct your three-year, round-trip mission, maybe tele-operate some rovers of the surface (of Mars). That will all be interesting and then the next mission will finally go down to the surface."

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