The bright smudge at the center of this image is Comet Hartley 2, as seen by NASA's Deep Impact / EPOXI probe from a distance of 5 million miles. Scientists expect the view to be much improved on Thursday when the spacecraft passes by at a distance of 435 miles.
By Senior writer
updated 11/3/2010 3:08:24 PM ET 2010-11-03T19:08:24

As a NASA spacecraft speeds toward Thursday's rendezvous with Comet Hartley 2, the icy wanderer is putting on a show, blasting out gassy jets and coughing up loads of poisonous cyanide.

The Deep Impact probe will cruise to within 435 miles (700 kilometers) of Hartley 2, marking just the fifth time that a comet has ever been observed up close. And the view should be interesting.

Last week, the spacecraft spotted two massive jets spewing from the comet's nucleus — its core of ice and rock. Comet Hartley 2 also spat out huge quantities of cyanide over a weeklong stretch in September, raising concentrations of the poisonous gas by a factor of five, researchers said.

"We're about to be surprised," said Mike A'Hearn of the University of Maryland, principal investigator of Deep Impact's mission, which NASA calls EPOXI. "This comet is unlike any we've visited before, and we don't know what we're going to find."

The encounter: How it should happen
Comet Hartley 2 is a small, active comet that orbits the sun once every six and a half years. It was discovered in 1986 by Australian astronomer Malcolm Hartley. [Q&A with Comet Hartley 2 Discoverer]

The Deep Impact spacecraft has been chasing Hartley 2 for months, taking pictures and maneuvering to prepare for the close flyby, which is scheduled to take place at 10:01 a.m. ET Wednesday.

Here's a brief rundown of how the flyby should proceed, if everything goes according to plan:

About 18 hours before its closest approach, Deep Impact will begin the encounter phase of its mission. The probe will reorient itself so its three imagers — two in the visible-light spectrum and one in the infrared — can lock on Comet Hartley 2 for the next 24 hours-plus.

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This maneuver will point the probe's high-gain antenna away from Earth, meaning Deep Impact won't be able to beam pictures home for a bit, researchers said. Instead, it will store the photos onboard in its two computers.

This lack of multitasking ability reflects the fact that Deep Impact is a recycled, repurposed spacecraft. It was originally designed to serve as a mother ship for NASA's Deep Impact mission, which intentionally fired a probe into Comet Tempel 1 in 2005 to study the object's composition.

Soon after Deep Impact's closest approach with Hartley 2, mission scientists will reorient the probe so it can both track the now-receding comet and start beaming images to Earth.

The spacecraft will continue to take new photos while it sends its cache of comet close-ups home. The first few photos should reach researchers' computers about an hour or so after the rendezvous, scientists said. The complete data dump, however, will take a while.

"We will be waiting,"  A'Hearn said. "The best images won't reach Earth until many hours after the actual encounter." [The Best Comet Photos of All Time.]

Researchers should get some good looks at Comet Hartley 2. One of Deep Impact's cameras is so powerful that it can distinguish the size difference between a car and a pickup truck from 400 miles (645 kilometers) away, mission scientists say.

Data from the close approach will continue to download through Saturday, but NASA will release preliminary results sooner than that. A news conference is scheduled for 4 p.m. ET Thursday, just six hours after Deep Impact's closest approach to Hartley 2, agency officials said.

Post-encounter: Watching Hartley 2 speed away
Though Deep Impact will zoom by Comet Hartley 2 incredibly quickly — at about 27,000 mph (43,548 kilometers per hour) — the spacecraft will be able to track the comet's tail end with just a slow swivel. The probe will turn about 1 degree per second, according to mission scientists — one-sixth the rate at which a second hand makes its way around a clock face.

This anticipated ease of tracking is one reason mission planners chose to keep its distance from the comet, rather than zip in for a closer, more detailed look.

Another reason: to keep Deep Impact away from the densest parts of Hartley 2's coma, the gassy, dusty cloud around its nucleus. Particles in the coma could damage Deep Impact's antenna if the probe gets too close.

"We've chosen 700 kilometers because we're balancing several desires and several threats here," explained EPOXI project manager Tim Larson, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Deep Impact will continue photographing Hartley 2 for about three weeks as the comet speeds off into the dark reaches of space, Larson added. After that point, the spacecraft's comet-watching mission will be basically over.

What Comet Hartley 2 can reveal
Researchers hope Deep Impact's flyby past Hartley 2 can give them a good idea of the composition of the comet's icy nucleus. They are also eager to compare Hartley 2 to the four other comets that spacecraft have visited in the past.

Hartley 2, while just under a mile (1.5 kilometers) across, is incredibly active. A close study of its spewing jets and gas clouds could yield clues about comet composition and behavior in general, researchers said.

"We saw outbursts in Comet Tempel 1, as well as many other things," A'hearn said. "We're trying to find out, are all of the new phenomena we saw at Tempel 1 universal across all comets, or are they special to Comet Tempel 1?"

Comets are leftovers from the solar system's formation 4.5 billion years ago, so studying them should give astronomers a better handle on how our cosmic neighborhood came to be, researchers said.

The 2005 kamikaze crash into Tempel 1 exposed what scientists think are primordial layers of matter dating back 4.5 billion years. EPOXI scientists hope an up-close look at Hartley 2 will reveal similar ancient material, perhaps providing key insights about our solar system's youth.

"That's the ultimate goal at the encounter," A'hearn said.

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Photos: Month in Space: January 2014

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  1. Southern stargazing

    Stars, galaxies and nebulas dot the skies over the European Southern Observatory's La Silla Paranal Observatory in Chile, in a picture released on Jan. 7. This image also shows three of the four movable units that feed light into the Very Large Telescope Interferometer, the world's most advanced optical instrument. Combining to form one larger telescope, they are greater than the sum of their parts: They reveal details that would otherwise be visible only through a telescope as large as the distance between them. (Y. Beletsky / ESO) Back to slideshow navigation
  2. A balloon's view

    Cameras captured the Grandville High School RoboDawgs' balloon floating through Earth's upper atmosphere during its ascent on Dec. 28, 2013. The Grandville RoboDawgs’ first winter balloon launch reached an estimated altitude of 130,000 feet, or about 25 miles, according to coaches Mike Evele and Doug Hepfer. It skyrocketed past the team’s previous 100,000-feet record set in June. The RoboDawgs started with just one robotics team in 1998, but they've grown to support more than 30 teams at public schools in Grandville, Mich. (Kyle Moroney / AP) Back to slideshow navigation
  3. Spacemen at work

    Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov, right, and Sergey Ryazanskiy perform maintenance on the International Space Station on Jan. 27. During the six-hour, eight-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Ryazanskiy completed the installation of a pair of high-fidelity cameras that experienced connectivity issues during a Dec. 27 spacewalk. The cosmonauts also retrieved scientific gear outside the station's Russian segment. (NASA) Back to slideshow navigation
  4. Special delivery

    The International Space Station's Canadian-built robotic arm moves toward Orbital Sciences Corp.'s Cygnus autonomous cargo craft as it approaches the station for a Jan. 12 delivery. The mountains below are the southwestern Alps. (NASA) Back to slideshow navigation
  5. Accidental art

    A piece of art? A time-lapse photo? A flickering light show? At first glance, this image looks nothing like the images we're used to seeing from the Hubble Space Telescope. But it's a genuine Hubble frame that was released on Jan. 27. Hubble's team suspects that the telescope's Fine Guidance System locked onto a bad guide star, potentially a double star or binary. This caused an error in the tracking system, resulting in a remarkable picture of brightly colored stellar streaks. The prominent red streaks are from stars in the globular cluster NGC 288. (NASA / ESA) Back to slideshow navigation
  6. Supersonic test flight

    A camera looking back over Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo's fuselage shows the rocket burn with a Mojave Desert vista in the background during a test flight of the rocket plane on Jan. 10. Cameras were mounted on the exterior of SpaceShipTwo as well as its carrier airplane, WhiteKnightTwo, to monitor the rocket engine's performance. The test was aimed at setting the stage for honest-to-goodness flights into outer space later this year, and eventual commercial space tours.

    More about SpaceShipTwo on PhotoBlog (Virgin Galactic) Back to slideshow navigation
  7. Red lagoon

    The VLT Survey Telescope at the European Southern Observatory's Paranal Observatory in Chile captured this richly detailed new image of the Lagoon Nebula, released on Jan. 22. This giant cloud of gas and dust is creating intensely bright young stars, and is home to young stellar clusters. This image is a tiny part of just one of 11 public surveys of the sky now in progress using ESO telescopes. (ESO/VPHAS team) Back to slideshow navigation
  8. Fire on the mountain

    This image provided by NASA shows a satellite view of smoke from the Colby Fire, taken by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft as it passed over Southern California on Jan. 16. The fire burned more than 1,863 acres and forced the evacuation of 3,700 people. (NASA via AP) Back to slideshow navigation
  9. Where stars are born

    An image captured by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the Orion Nebula, an immense stellar nursery some 1,500 light-years away. This false-color infrared view, released on Jan. 15, spans about 40 light-years across the region. The brightest portion of the nebula is centered on Orion's young, massive, hot stars, known as the Trapezium Cluster. But Spitzer also can detect stars still in the process of formation, seen here in red hues. (NASA / JPL-Caltech) Back to slideshow navigation
  10. Cygnus takes flight

    Orbital Sciences Corp.'s Antares rocket rises from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility on Wallops Island, Va, on Jan. 9. The rocket sent Orbital's Cygnus cargo capsule on its first official resupply mission to the International Space Station. (Chris Perry / NASA) Back to slideshow navigation
  11. A long, long time ago...

    This long-exposure picture from the Hubble Space Telescope, released Jan. 8, is the deepest image ever made of any cluster of galaxies. The cluster known as Abell 2744 appears in the foreground. It contains several hundred galaxies as they looked 3.5 billion years ago. Abell 2744 acts as a gravitational lens to warp space, brightening and magnifying images of nearly 3,000 distant background galaxies. The more distant galaxies appear as they did more than 12 billion years ago, not long after the Big Bang. (NASA / NASA via AFP - Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  12. Frosty halo

    Sun dogs are bright spots that appear in the sky around the sun when light is refracted through ice crystals in the atmosphere. These sun dogs appeared on Jan. 5 amid brutally cold temperatures along Highway 83, north of Bismarck, N.D. The temperature was about 22 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, with a 50-below-zero wind chill.

    Slideshow: The Year in Space (Brian Peterson / The Bismarck Tribune via AP) Back to slideshow navigation
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