Image: A man pays homage to people killed in the Mumbai terror attack
Rafiq Maqbool  /  AP
A man pays homage in front of portraits of police officers killed in the Mumbai terror attack. India rebuked Pakistan on Thursday for not punishing the alleged masterminds.
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updated 11/26/2010 6:30:13 AM ET 2010-11-26T11:30:13

India marked the second anniversary of the Mumbai terror attack Friday with somber ceremonies and a renewed promise to seek justice for the 166 people slain in an assault that has set back peace efforts with archrival Pakistan.

The 60-hour siege by 10 Pakistani militants, which has been called India's 9/11, paralyzed the financial capital and deeply wounded the national psyche.

The gunmen attacked ordinary commuters in a train station, targeted the rich and famous at luxury hotels, killed tourists at a popular cafe, overwhelmed the local police force and took over a Jewish center.

PhotoBlog: Remembering the Mumbai terror attacks

In a message of defiance, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said the strength of the Indian people will conquer those threatening their way of life.

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"We will never succumb to the designs of our enemies," he said. "We pledge to redouble our efforts to bring the perpetrators of this crime against humanity to justice."

The attack froze peace efforts between India and Pakistan to resolve their six-decade-old conflict. Though the nuclear-armed neighbors have haltingly renewed ties, India has refused to resume full-fledged peace talks until Pakistan prosecutes those responsible for the attack and cracks down on anti-India militant groups.

The only gunman to survive the assault, Ajmal Kasab, has been sentenced to death in India, but none of the seven alleged masterminds arrested in Pakistan has been put on trial. India repeated its demand that they be punished.

"Once again I call upon Pakistan to dismantle the terror machine operating with impunity in territories under its control and to bring all the perpetrators of the Mumbai terror attack to speedy justice," Indian External Affairs Minister S.M. Krishna said in a statement.

Officers flanked by special anti-terror vehicles marched through Mumbai on Friday morning from the Oberoi Trident Hotel, one of the attack sites.

Hundreds of students held a giant banner that read "The Great Wall of Mumbai," intending to show how the city remained defiant in the face of the attack.

Video: Did the U.S. know about the Mumbai attack? (on this page)

Government ministers laid wreaths in a commemoration ceremony, while the father of a paramilitary officer slain in the attacks embarked on a bike ride from Bangalore to Mumbai to join a peace march. Families of the victims planned a candlelight vigil Friday evening.

Earlier this month, President Barack Obama stayed in one of the targeted sites, the Taj Mahal Hotel, and paid tribute to the attack victims in a speech that pledged solidarity with India against terror.

Copyright 2010 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

Video: D.E.A. informant helped plot Mumbai attacks

  1. Closed captioning of: D.E.A. informant helped plot Mumbai attacks

    >>> disturbing, new reports today that american drug deal somewhere sometime informant for the dea was release on parole, sent to pakistan as an informant for the u.s., while providing americans with information he was also training at a terrorist camp . sent to pack stage after september 11th though numerous warning his sympathized with radical islamic groups. less than two months later he began training and played a key role in the 2008 mumbai attacks that killed 164 people. jamie smith a former federal air marshal instruct somewhere the founder of scg international. an nbc news terrorist and the president of good harbor counseling. roger, look, whether you're a local street cop who deals with informants or you're the dea , i suppose there is always some risk, but the fact that there were warnings there were concerns expressed, should the united states have known?

    >> well, chris, you're absolutely right, always risk. this is a great tale of wanting to believe, wanting to believe in the holy grail of intelligence collection, which is human intelligence . a lot of people in the dea and elsewhere believes headley was the type tof individual who could work with groups, penetrate them, and provide them the type of information they were lacking because they didn't have any other resourceses, any other human intelligence resources. it's easy to see how they talked themselves into this. headley provided very good information on drug running , the drug operations, very easy to jump to the next level. if he could do that, maybe he can work with other groups and give us that type of actionable intelligence, pre-9/11 we were missing. cease easy to see how this plays out one of the warning signs from hi girlfriend but dismissed because headley himself said she went credible. do you go to -- if the complaint is being made by the girlfriend, do you just dismiss it because the guy says she's not credible?

    >> well, as roger said, to what we're dealing with people not the people you want to show up at your family christmas party . these are c.i., confident informant somebody that has to have a connect with the underworld, they're not good folks nine times out of ten. and this man had a history of providing good information. and the fact that a jilted girlfriend came along and laid something down that said he wasn't a good guy and he had some concerns with the terrorist side, that's something i'm sure they investigated, looked at it but at the same time they're going to weigh out, what his he provide, what that's provided in the past? what is the potential this man it can where to us versus the girl friend trying to get him thrown back in jail again. these are not the sort of people, like i said, you want to associate with anyway. you're going to get your hands dirty working with them but that's what's required to gain information on the bad guys . you've got to have somebody part of the bad guys ' outfit give you information in the first place.

    >> roger, back in 2001 , tremendous amount of pressure, obviously, to get good intelligence. let me bring it not to drug intelligence but more broadly to the war on terror , and we know that the predator drones have been in yemen . but one of the problems is that they don't have the intelligence to find these al qaeda targets. does that mean there is going to be more risk because we'll be sending more people like headley to places like yemen ?

    >> well, we always try to strike a balance, chris. the cia wants a combination, humanle intelligence, other elements, signal intelligence and reporting from local liaison services. you pull all of the pieces together and create the mosaic to understand the situation. what headley demonstrates, these are the type of scumbags you have to work with bow you need to have layers of verification in place to identify when they might properly go wrong. think about the predator operations which have been wildly successful over pakistan in the past several years. that's a function of years of work, years of operations, that we understand the target in away we didn't prior to 9/11. i think that's a very important point we need to keep in mind. we've had years of preparation and activity over there. that's why we've got son good. but one thing we always forget when talk about the predator, the predator's a wonderfully effective tool. it's not a strategy. we need to figure out how predator operations factor into the broader strategy that we're dealing with, either in pakistan or yemen .

    >> there is the problem. roger cressey , jamie smith , thanks to both of you.

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