Image: Tiffany Hartley
Ed Andrieski  /  AP file
Tiffany Hartley, speaking at a rally at the Colorado state Capitol in Denver on March 30, demanded that the U.S. government find the body of her slain husband, David.
By Writer/editor
updated 4/22/2011 10:29:00 AM ET 2011-04-22T14:29:00

While U.S. officials have long been concerned about the mindless violence bred by Mexico’s bloody and brutal drug wars, they have a new reason to worry: Americans are increasingly getting caught in the deadly crossfire.

Some who have died were themselves working for the drug cartels. But more and more often, experts say, the casualties are U.S. law enforcement officers and innocent victims who died simply because they ended up at the wrong place at the wrong time.

  1. More stories on The War Next Door
    1. Top cop quits after 145 found in Mexico grave
    2. Countless Juarez residents flee 'dying city'
    3. Violence, scandal mar governor's race in Mexico
    4. Gang's terror felt far from drug war on border
    5. 31 dead in 4 days in Mexico's Acapulco
    6. Images from Mexico's drug war
    7. NBC News: ‘War next door’ linked directly to U.S.

"These cartels will stop at nothing," said Tiffany Hartley, who became an anti-cartel crusader after her husband, David, apparently was gunned down on Sept. 30 by Mexican drug gang members on Falcon Lake, a dammed section of the Rio Grande straddling the Texas-Mexico border. "The violence is not going to stop and more will die at the unforgiving hands of cartels."

No one can say for certain how many Americans have been killed in the escalating Mexican drug violence in the past several years, but the closest thing to an official list — the U.S. State Department’s database of deaths of U.S. citizens abroad by non-natural causes — indicates that the number has been steadily increasing.

At least 106 U.S. residents were victims of "executions" or "homicides" directly related to drug battles in Mexico in 2010, compared to 79 in 2009 and 35 in 2007, according to the State Department figures.

Many deaths, disappearances aren't tallied
And experts — and the State Department itself — say the number is certainly much higher. For example, the State Department doesn’t list several recent high-profile deaths that have been publicly linked to the drug cartels or cases in which Americans have vanished or been killed in the U.S. by Mexican drug gangs.

"You have a lot of folks who are dual citizens, with some born in the U.S. but (who) live on the Mexico side," Scott Stewart, a vice president with the global intelligence firm STRATFOR, said of the difficulty in documenting American deaths connected to cartel violence. "A lot of them are working back and forth and some are working as gunmen too. And when someone like that dies, it is hard to know. Some simply disappear while others are lying in a vat of lye or dumped into a mass grave."

STRATFOR also says the presence of cartels has been documented in more than 230 U.S. cities.

The number of American deaths pales in comparison to the Mexican death toll from the violence: 15,273 in 2010 alone, according to the Mexican government.

But some U.S. law enforcement officials closest to the border say that new aggressiveness by the cartels — including threats to target U.S. law enforcement officers — and increasing drug gang violence on the U.S. side of the border mean that more Americans will die if the U.S. and Mexico can’t soon turn the tide.

Mexico cartels

"How many more have to die for the U.S. to take action?" said Zapata County (Texas) Sheriff Sigifredo Gonzalez, whose police department investigated the Hartley case. "I'm not saying let's invade Mexico but the truth is Mexico does not own its border. The cartels do."

Recent high-profile cases
Among the recent high-profile killings of Americans believed to be linked to drug trafficking:

• U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Special Agent Jaime Zapata, 32, died Feb. 15 when hit men from the Zetas cartel attacked the agents' blue Chevy Suburban as he and his partner, Victor Avila, drove through Mexico's San Luis Potosi state. Zapata was on assignment to the Immigration and Customs Enforcement attaché in Mexico City from his post in Laredo, Texas. Avila was shot twice in the leg.

• American missionary Nancy Davis. Davis and her husband, Sam, were driving their 2008 Chevrolet pickup on a highway near San Fernando, about 70 miles south of the Mexican border city of Reynosa when killers opened fire on Jan. 26, hitting the 59-year-old woman in the head. Mexican and U.S. authorities said the gunmen were likely cartel thugs bent on stealing the couple’s truck.

• Martin Alejandro Cota-Monroy , 38, was found dead in a Chandler, Ariz., apartment on Oct. 10, his severed head several feet away from his trunk. Police later determined that he was killed in retaliation for stealing 400 pounds of marijuana from the PEI-Estatales/El Chapo Drug Trafficking Organization.

• Third-generation cattle rancher Robert Krentz, 58, and his dog, an 8-year-old heeler named Blue, were gunned down moments after Krentz reported seeing someone in trouble on his ranch, northeast of Douglas, Ariz., on March 27, 2010. Subsequent investigation suggested the killing was not random and that drug smugglers may have been responsible.

But many cases involving Americans killed in Mexico or in the U.S. near the border are nowhere near so clear-cut, leaving investigators to try and puzzle out a motive:

• U.S. Border Patrol Agent Brian A. Terry, 40, was killed on Dec. 10 during an exchange with heavily armed men along the busiest smuggling corridor in Arizona, just north of the Mexico border. Investigators believe the gunmen were either drug smugglers or bandits who prey on illegal immigrants. Meantime, Congress is investigating whether the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms sold the weapon that was used to kill Terry to suspected Mexican gun runners, according to published reports. The Justice Department has denied the reports.

• Carlos Mario Gonzalez Bermudez, 16, and Juan Carlos Echeverri died on Feb. 5 along with a Mexican teenager in Juárez when unidentified gunmen sprayed a used car dealership with gunfire as the teenagers looked at cars.

• Edgar Lopez, 35, of El Paso, Texas, was killed Oct. 31, along with two Mexican men when gunmen opened fire on a group standing outside a house in Juárez. A day earlier, 26-year-old Giovanna Herrera and 15-year-old Luis Arazia, both U.S. citizens, were slain shortly after crossing an international bridge into Juárez from El Paso.

Cartels getting more aggressive
While the circumstances surrounding individual cases can be difficult to ascertain, authorities in the U.S. say one thing is very clear: The cartels are pushing new boundaries when it comes to targeting Americans.

Recent law enforcement bulletins have stated that cartels have instructed members to shoot and kill American border agents using AK-47 assault rifles, according to testimony presented March 31 at a hearing before the House Subcommittee on Homeland Security.

"The shooting of special agents Zapata and Avila is a game changer which alters the landscape of the involvement of the United States in Mexico's war against the drug cartels," said U.S. Rep. Michael McCaul, R-Texas, chairman of the subcommittee. "For the first time in 25 years, the cartels are now targeting American law enforcement."

Image: A U.S. Border Patrol agent arrives for a memorial service for slain comrade Brian Terry
John Moore  /  Getty Images
A U.S. Border Patrol agent arrives for a memorial service for slain comrade Brian Terry on January 21 in Tucson, Ariz. Terry was killed during a Dec. 4, 2010, shootout with suspected bandits near the U.S.-Mexico Border.

Gonzalez, the Texas sheriff, whose department sits on the other side of the Rio Grande from Mexico, said his officers have long seen evidence that the violence doesn’t respect borders.

“The feds say our side of the border is safe,” he said, “but we have bullet holes in our schools and businesses that say otherwise.”

Sheriff’s Sgt. Jimmy Mendoza, who has served on Gonzalez's 28-officer force for six years, said he is worried. He patrols alone while covering a fraction of Zapata County's 997-square-miles.

"The cartels are regrouping, gearing up," Mendoza said. "Our weapons are like squirt guns against their big guns and they want to own our turf."

Gonzalez and many other local lawmen whose territory borders Mexico say the federal government needs to do more to help bolster police forces along the border.

"We need more staffing, we need better weapons," Gonzalez said.

But Tiffany Hartley, who lost her husband to the Mexican drug wars as they jet skied that September day on the Falcon Lake, said the government has waited far too long to get serious about the growing threat posed by the cartels.

Video: Lake shooting a case of mistaken identity?

"When American people hear cartels they think of Mexico," she said. "What they don't know is that they're already in our town, cities and states. They're in gangs, the jails and in our prisons. They're already among us."

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Explainer: Mexico's drug cartel bosses

  • The nefarious drug lords of Mexico's underworld have emerged as the world's most wanted criminals.

    They're savage, rich and ingenious in their ability to move massive shipments of narcotics into the United States and worldwide. They manage trafficking organizations like CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, and one kingpin was even listed as No. 41 on the Forbes list of the 500 most powerful people in the world.

    The following are key players in Mexico's drug wars.

    (Source: research, The Associated Press and Reuters)

  • Shorty

    Image: Joaquin Guzman
    Damian Dovarganes  /  AP FILE
    Joaquín Guzmán.

    Name: Joaquín Guzmán Loera
    Nickname: El Chapo (Shorty)
    Cartel: Sinaloa
    Born: April, 4, 1957
    Bounty: $5 million (U.S.), $2 million (Mexico)
    Background: The billionaire drug lord is Mexico's most wanted criminal on both sides of the border. The 5-foot-6-inch Guzmán is known for his use of sophisticated tunnels to smuggle cocaine from Mexico into the United States in the early 1990s. He escaped a maximum-security prison in a laundry cart in 2001. Since, he's been blamed for igniting bloody turf wars throughout Mexico. In November 2010, Guzmán was listed at 60th among the 68 most powerful people in the world by Forbes Magazine.
    Personal affairs: Guzmán married an 18-year-old beauty queen in 2007. A year later, his  22-year-old son, Edgar, died in a shootout with rivals. The grieving father ordered 50,000 red roses for the burial.

  • Sidekick

    Ismael Zambada García

    Name: Ismael Zambada García
    Nickname: El Mayo
    Cartel: Sinaloa
    Born: Jan. 1, 1948
    Bounty: $5 million (U.S.), $2 million (Mexico)
    Background: Zambada, a former furniture worker and farmer, is Joaquín Guzmán's partner and like his narco buddy, a fugitive from the law in Mexico and the United States. He's notorious for having plastic surgery and disguising himself as he travels throughout Mexico. Of course, he lives under a false identity. Zambada has been involved in drug trafficking for more than 30 years. There's no sign of his retiring.
    All in the family: Trafficking is deeply embedded in the family DNA. His wife, Rosario Niebla Cardoza, three sons and four daughters help dad with extensive narcotics distribution and money laundering. Both his brother and son have been arrested in Mexico.

  • Executioner

    Heriberto Lazcano

    Name: Heriberto Lazcano
    Nickname: The Executioner, El Lazca, El Verdugo, Z-3
    Cartel: Los Zetas
    Born: Dec. 25, 1974
    Bounty: $5 million (U.S.), $2 million (Mexico)
    Background: Lazcano deserted the Mexican army's special forces in the late 1990s to join the enforcers for the Zetas cartel, which takes its name from a police radio code in which "Z" means "commander." He is now considered its leader. The gang's break with a former ally, the Gulf cartel, ramped up violence in 2010 in parts of Mexico, where the Zetas have been blamed for slaughtering police officers, politicians, scores of migrants and the family of a fallen marine in retaliation for his involvement in bringing down a drug lord. Lazcano and his extremely loyal bodyguards are constantly on the move to avoid capture.
    Catholic ties: The 36-year-old drug lord was born in a poor farming town near Tezontle, a town now populated with opulent homes and a new Catholic church in honor of Pope John Paul II, which Lazcano reportedly funded. The Archdiocese of Mexico says it was aware and has since distanced itself from the chapel.

  • Brother

    Joe Raedle  /  Getty Images
    Vicente Carrillo-Fuentes

    Name: Vicente Carrillo Fuentes
    Nickname: Viceroy
    Cartel: Juarez
    Born: Oct. 16, 1962
    Bounty:$5 million (U.S.), $2 million (Mexico)
    Background: Fuentes inherited the Juarez cartel from his brother, Amando Carrillo Fuentes, who was known as the "Lord of the Skies" because of his private fleet of Boeing 727 jets used to traffic cocaine. After his brother's death during plastic surgery, Vicente ramped up the violence by creating a group of bloodthirsty killers, including corrupt police officers, known as La Linea. They're known to decapitate rivals, especially members of the Sinaloa cartel, and dump their mutilated corpses in public to instill fear. This cartel, backed by the Zetas, works closely with a U.S. prison gang, the Barrio Azteca, to carry out murders. Federal authorities blame the Juarez cartel for hundreds of deaths and disappearances, since the cartel took over the trafficking corridor in 1993, The El Paso Times reported.
    Mystery man: Little is known of Fuentes, expect he is the third of six brothers and has six sisters.

  • Ex-cop

    Jorge Eduardo Costilla

    Name: Jorge Eduardo Costilla
    Nickname: El Coss
    Cartel: Gulf
    Born: Aug. 1, 1971
    Bounty: $5 million (U.S.), $2 million (Mexico)
    Background: A former Matamoros police officer, Costilla heads a cartel that allegedly grew out of bootleggers during the American Prohibition. He has been charged in the U.S. with 12 counts of drug trafficking and money laundering and is also wanted for assaulting federal officers with Kalashnikov rifles. He used to work closely with the Zetas cartel but now is at the forefront of a war to annihilate them.

  • Meth man

    Name: Nazario Moreno González
    Nickname: El Mas Loco, El Chayo
    Cartel: La Familia Michoacana
    Born: March 8, 1970, in Guanajuatillo, Michoacan
    Bounty: $5 million (U.S.), $2 million (Mexico)
    Background: González specializes in trafficking crystal methamphetamine. He was raised a Catholic but converted to Jehovah's Witnesses. He requires each of his gangsters to carry his own Bible, which is compulsory reading. He invokes principles of divine justice when setting out to defeat his enemies and is a fan of the "Godfather" trilogy and the film "Braveheart."

  • Strongman

    Name: Héctor Beltrán Leyva
    Nickname: El Ingeniero, El H
    Cartel: Beltrán Leyva Cartel
    Born: Feb. 15, 1965
    Bounty: $5 million (U.S.), $2 million (Mexico)
    Background: He and his five brothers trafficked tons of marijuana, cocaine and heroine across the border. The brothers broke ties with the Sinaloa network in 2008 after brother Arturo Beltrán Leyva was arrested by Mexican special forces. The brothers blamed faction boss Joaquín Guzmán for the capture. Arturo was gunned down a year later by Mexican marines.

    In 2004, officials in New York and the District of Colombia indicted Beltrán Leyva on trafficking charges.

Interactive: Mexico's drug-trafficking landscape

Video: Inside Mexico’s Drug War, Part 1

Photos: Narco culture permeates Mexico, leaks across border

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  1. Tijuana, June 2009: Mexico's drug culture is defined by guns and money, to be sure, but it includes sex, movies, music and even a heavy dose of religion. It also extends across the border into the U.S.

    Since 2008, photojournalist Shaul Schwarz has been documenting that culture. Presented here are snapshots of that coverage, starting with what makes it all happen: cash. This stash was confiscated and the alleged courier, seen at center, was detained by Mexican soldiers.

    "Since the beginning of President Felipe Calderon's drug war in 2006, Mexican officials have held press conferences to show detained suspects," Schwarz notes. "At the same time the violence persists" -- with nearly 35,000 people killed through 2010. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
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    This image contains graphic content that some viewers may find disturbing.

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    Ciudad Juarez, August 2009: Three young men died in this shootout in the parking lot of a shopping mall. In the first half of that year, more than 1,000 drug war deaths were counted in Juarez alone. The city of 1.3 million has been the center of a drug turf war between the Sinaloa and Juarez cartels. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  3. Ciudad Juarez, August 2009: Residents of a neighborhood survey the site where a body was found, presumably another victim of drug turf clashes. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  4. Mexico City, July 2009: Mexico's drug and gang culture has a strong religious streak. Thousands of devotees seen here attend a mass for Santa Muerte -- Saint Death -- a mythical figure condemned by the Catholic Church but embraced by many poor and criminal elements. This gathering is outside a shrine in Tepito, a gritty neighborhood famous for its street markets brimming with pirated and stolen merchandise.

    "Its violent and dangerous streets serve as a sort of mecca for Santa Muerte followers," Schwarz says. "Tepito is also home to the most popular Santa Muerte shrine, which sits outside a modest home. On the first day of every month, the shrine fills with followers who come bearing statuettes of the saint. Some pilgrims make their way from the subway on their knees; many smoke weed or cigars with their saints." (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  5. Mexico City, October 2009: Devotees of Saint Judas Thaddaeus inhale glue out of plastic bags to get high as they gather outside San Hipolito church during the annual pilgrimage honoring the saint.

    Judas Thaddaeus is the Catholic Church's patron saint of desperate cases and lost causes, but in Mexico he is also known as "the saint of both cops and robbers (and prostitutes), as well as one of the biggest spiritual figures for young people in Mexico City," Schwarz says. "He has become the generic patron saint of disreputable activities. His biggest – and most important shrine – is at Hipolito, one of the best preserved colonial churches." (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  6. Mexico City, October 2009: This shrine in the Colonia Doctores neighborhood pays homage to both Santa Muerte and Jesus Malverde, reputedly a bandit killed by officials in 1909.

    Jesus Malverde is revered by many as a Robin Hood who stole from the rich to give to the poor. Several dozen such shrines exist in this neighborhood and in Tepito, where the cults thrive. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  7. Tijuana, June 2009: A shrine to Santa Muerte sits above a home in the notorious Colonia Libertad neighborhood. The shrine is walled in by the old border fence separating Tijuana from San Diego. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  8. Tijuana, March 2009: A man peeks through a fence toward the U.S., studying Border Patrol movements before crossing. New fences are constantly being built to deter illegal immigrants and drug traffickers.

    In 2010, President Barack Obama ordered some 1,200 National Guard troops to the Southwest border and also signed a $600 million bill to fund 1,500 new Border Patrol agents, customs inspectors and law enforcement officials. But the U.S. has also had to pull the plug on a troubled $1 billion "virtual fence" project meant to better guard stretches of the border. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  9. Tijuana, June 2009: Federal police pat down a stripper during the raid of a large dance club. Several nightclubs in the notorious downtown red-light district were raided that night. Other parts of the strip continued as normal, with foreigners approaching young prostitutes as families with small children walked by with little notice and mariachis played on. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
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    Click to view the image, or use the buttons above to navigate away.

    Ciudad Juarez, December 2008: A woman's body lies on the autopsy table where it was discovered that she was raped and then murdered in what was made to look like a suicide.

    "Violence against women has also surged in correlation to the daily multiple uninvestigated and unpunished homicides," Schwarz says. "The coroner's office is open 24/7 and employs more than 100 doctors, technicians and investigative specialists, who cover Ciudad Juarez and northern Chihuahua state." (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  11. Tijuana, June 2009: The drug culture is often portrayed by Mexican cinema. Here director Antonio Herrera films a scene for "Vida Mafiosa" -- Mafia Life -- a low budget film glorifying the culture. "This is the only thing selling at the moment for me," Herrera said at the time as he worked to complete his seventh narco film. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  12. Tijuana, November 2010: A scene from "El Baleado" -- The Shooting Victim -- shows young men being executed shortly after smuggling drugs in from a beach. The film was produced by Baja Films Productions, a family-owned company that almost went out of business until family member Oscar Lopez, a San Diego resident, convinced his father to make a narco film. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  13. Tijuana, April 2010: Los Angeles gangsters hang out at the production of a narco film. One of the gang members (not pictured) was an extra in the film. "That was a good excuse for them to come down to TJ and party where the drugs and women are cheap," Schwarz says. "It's common for gangsters/narcos to want to appear in these films." (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  14. Mexico City, October 2009: Devotees of Saint Judas Thaddaeus gather outside San Hipolito church. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  15. Tijuana, June 2009: Young Mexicans in the Colonia Libertad neighborhood smoke pot and hang out at a spot overlooking the border with the U.S. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  16. Burbank, Calif., April 2010: Alfredo Rios, better known by his stage name "El Komander", walks down a street just outside the studio of his agent and music producer. From Sinaloa, El Komander is one of the hottest singers/composers of "Narcocorrido" songs, which glorify the drug culture.

    "He regularly performs at private parties for Sinaloa's cartel members as well as composes songs for/about them, at times even commissioned by the drug lords," Schwarz says. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  17. Tijuana, April 2010: Narcocorrido performer "The Scorpion" (whose real name is Amador Granados) shows off his belt while on the set of a Baja Films Productions movie that translated into English means: Seagulls Don't Fly Alone. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  18. Culiacan, March 2009: A man and his two sons visit Culiacan's main Jesus Malverde shrine, located across from a McDonald's and near the state legislature.

    "The narco culture is becoming more and more mainstream and the shrine draws people of all walks of life," Schwarz says. "Many visitors leave Polaroid photos with pithy notes giving thanks to Malverde."

    "The image of his mustachioed face, bedecked with a neckerchief, a gold chain with a pistol charm around his neck, and a large belt-buckle with a pistol around his waist can now be found all over the U.S.," Schwarz adds. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  19. El Monte, Calif., April 2010: The Bukanas De Culiacan band gets ready to perform during the launch event of "Movimiento Alterado," a new form of Narcocorrido gaining popularity. "Narco music clubs are mushrooming all over L.A., and up and down the West Coast," Schwarz says.
    "It's a social movement of people who came from nothing and dream of a chance out," said Joel Vazquez, the band's manager. "It's a lot like hip hop or gangsta rap, except it's Mexican culture, not black." (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  20. Pico Rivera, Calif., April 2010: Partyers use the bathroom at El Rodeo Night Club, one of the many big Narcocorrido clubs in the Los Angeles area. "The cross-over music scene and culture is generating hybrid fashion trends and lifestyle ties between the Sinaloa mainstream, in Mexico and the Mexican-American mainstream culture in L.A.," Schwarz says. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  21. Ciudad Juarez, August 2009: Police protect a crime scene where two bodies were found in the desert near the border with the U.S. Much of Mexico's drug violence is due to turf wars for control of the border routes. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  22. Culiacan, July 2009: The Jardines del Humaya Cemetery hosts many grave sites dedicated to drug traffickers. Some are two- and three-stories tall; many have bulletproof glass, Italian marble and spiral iron staircases.

    "Inside the mausoleums are pictures of the deceased, often men in their 20s and 30s, and signs of Santa Muerte and Jesus Malverde," says Schwarz. "And, as in many of the cemeteries found in the drug-war inflicted Mexico, rows of freshly dug graves await their new tenants." (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  23. Apatzingan, April 2010: This home hadn't been touched in the two years after it was shot at and burned down by soldiers in a deadly attack on members of the La Familia drug cartel. Many of its leaders were born in this town, and in December 2010 one of its founders was killed by soldiers there. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  24. The religion

    Culiacan, July 2009: A young man makes his way to the shrine of Jesus Malverde. Culiacan is the capital of the northwestern state of Sinaloa, long a hot bed of drug cultivation. For decades traffickers have worshipped at the shrine, helping to spread Malverde's fame. "Followers call Malverde the Robin Hood of Mexico," Schwarz says. "Critics say he has become a symbol of crime. Drug traffickers claim him as their own." (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  25. Tultitlan, November 2009: Santa Muerte devotees attend a service in the courtyard of a church with a 65-foot-tall statue of the mythical figure. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  26. Angeles National Forest, Calif., August 2009: Santa Muerte worshipers gather in a creek just outside Los Angeles. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  27. Ciudad Juarez, August 2009: This bridge to El Paso, Texas, is one of the legal border crossings into the U.S. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  28. Tijuana, March 2009: Mexico's military shows off the results of a raid on a party: assault weapons and the arrests of 58 people. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  29. Culiacan, July 2009: A new inmate kisses his wife goodbye as their daughter cries.

    The Culiacan prison is notorious for violence and riots. "Security forces most often stay outside just along the perimeter of the prison and do not go in to the living quarters themselves," Schwarz says. "Weed, other drugs and cell phones along with statues of saints are common inside this typical Mexican jail." (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  30. Tijuana, March 2009: A drug addict sits in a tent where he lives along the border canal with the U.S. "The border canal has become a regular spot for junkies to use heroin," Schwarz says. "While the Mexican police do nothing, the U.S Border Patrol are just out of jurisdiction." (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  31. Mexico City, October 2009: Jose Garcia Pichardo prays and smokes a cigar at the Santa Muerte altar in his bedroom. Pichardo said he once was a drug dealer and that two years earlier the Santa saved him from the police. (Shaul Schwarz / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
  32. Ciudad Juarez, August 2009: Women spread flour to soak up blood where a young man was murdered. Nearly 3,000 people were killed in the border city that year, and another 3,000 in 2010.

    "As a photojournalist I have covered conflicts and wars since 1996, but Mexico’s present situation haunts me like no other," Schwarz says. "While death statistics have been documented ad nauseum, far less has been said about the broader social reality created by the drug trade. As I continue to cover this story that seems to have no end in sight, I plan to focus not only on the harsh existence in border towns, but on the culture created for millions of Mexicans and Americans inevitably involved in or affected by the drug trade and a desire for “narco luxury.” (Shaul Schwarz/ Reportage By Gett / Reportage by Getty Images) Back to slideshow navigation
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