Steve Helber  /  AP
Miller's Mart food store in Mineral, Va., a small town northwest of Richmond near the earthquake's epicenter, was shaken but not damaged Tuesday.
updated 8/24/2011 9:35:12 PM ET 2011-08-25T01:35:12

A day after the East Coast's strongest earthquake in 67 years, inspectors assessed the damage and found that most problems were minor. But the shaking raised questions about whether this part of the country, with its older architecture and inexperience with seismic activity, is prepared for a truly powerful quake.

Several cracks have been discovered in the Washington Monument, and capstones were broken at the National Cathedral. In the District of Columbia suburbs, some people stayed in shelters because of structural concerns at their apartment buildings.

Story: Washington, D.C., zoo animals go wild ahead of quake

The 5.8 magnitude quake felt from Georgia north to Canada prompted swift inspections of many structures Wednesday, including bridges and nuclear plants. An accurate damage estimate could take weeks, if not longer. And many people will not be covered by insurance.

In a small Virginia city near the epicenter, the entire downtown business district was closed. School was canceled for two weeks to give engineers time to check out cracks in several buildings.

At the 555-foot Washington Monument, crews found a 4-inch crack late Tuesday and Wednesday the National Park Service says engineers discovered several additional cracks in the top portion of the structure.

The cracks were found during a daylong inspection of the interior of the monument. The first crack was discovered Tuesday during an inspection of the exterior by helicopter, shortly after the earthquake shook the capital.

The monument is closed to visitors indefinitely.

Park service spokeswoman Carol Johnson could not say how many additional cracks were found but says engineers found three or four "significant" ones.

The park service is bringing in engineers from two firms with extensive experience investigating earthquake damage to conduct a more detailed inspection on Thursday.

Johnson says it's likely that the additional cracks mean the monument will take longer to repair.

Quake interrupts Manhattan for a New York minute

The monument, by far the tallest structure in the nation's capital, has never been damaged by a natural disaster, including earthquakes in Virginia in 1897 and New York in 1944, said Bill Line, a National Park Service spokesman.

Tourists arrived at the monument Wednesday morning only to find out they couldn't get near it. A temporary fence was erected in a wide circle about 120 feet from the flags that surround its base. Walkways were blocked by metal barriers manned by security guards.

"Is it really closed?" a man asked the clerk at the site's bookstore.

Pablo Martinez Monsivais  /  AP
Police block off the alley behind the Embassy of Ecquador in Washington after part of the building sustained damages on Tuesday.
"It's really closed," said the clerk, Erin Nolan. Advance tickets were available for purchase, but she cautioned against buying them because it's not clear when the monument will open.

"This is pretty much all I'm going to be doing today," Nolan said.

Tuesday's quake was centered about 40 miles northwest of Richmond, 90 miles south of Washington and 3.7 miles underground. In the nearby town of Mineral, Va., Michael Leman knew his Main Street Plumbing & Electrical Supply business would need — at best — serious and expensive repairs.

At worst, it could be condemned. The facade had become detached from the rest of the building, and daylight was visible through a 4- to 6-inch gap that opened between the front wall and ceiling.

"We're definitely going to open back up," Leman said. "I've got people's jobs to look out for."

Leman said he is insured, but some property owners might not be so lucky.

The Insurance Information Institute said earthquakes are not covered under standard U.S. homeowners or business insurance policies, although supplemental coverage is usually available.

The institute says coverage for other damage that may result from earthquakes, such as fire and water damage from burst gas or water pipes, is provided by standard homeowners and business insurance policies in most states. Cars and other vehicles with comprehensive insurance would also be protected.

The U.S. Geological Survey classified the quake as Alert Level Orange, the second-most serious category on its four-level scale. Earthquakes in that range lead to estimated losses between $100 million and $1 billion.

In Culpeper, Va., about 35 miles from the epicenter, walls had buckled at the old sanctuary at St. Stephen's Episcopal Church, which was constructed in 1821 and drew worshippers including Confederate Gens. Robert E. Lee and J.E.B. Stuart. Heavy stone ornaments atop a pillar at the gate were shaken to the ground. A chimney from the old Culpeper Baptist Church built in 1894 also tumbled down.

Story: Earthquake closes, damages Washington landmarks

At the Washington National Cathedral, spokesman Richard Weinberg said the building's overall structure remains sound and damage was limited to "decorative elements."

Massive stones atop three of the four spires on the building's central tower broke off, crashing onto the roof. At least one of the spires is teetering badly, and cracks have appeared in some flying buttresses.

Repairs were expected to cost millions of dollars — an expense not covered by insurance.

"Every single portion of the exterior is carved by hand, so everything broken off is a piece of art," Weinberg said. "It's not just the labor, but the artistry of replicating what was once there."

The building will remain closed as a precaution, forcing officials to seek a new site for services to dedicate the memorial honoring Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.

Other major cities along the East Coast that felt the shaking tried to gauge the risk from another quake.

A few hours after briefly evacuating New York City Hall, Mayor Michael Bloomberg said the city's newer buildings could withstand a more serious earthquake. But, he added, questions remain about the older buildings that are common in a metropolis founded hundreds of years ago.

"We think that the design standards of today are sufficient against any eventuality," he said. But "there are questions always about some very old buildings. ... Fortunately those tend to be low buildings, so there's not great danger."

An earthquake similar to the one in Virginia could do billions of dollars of damage if it were centered in New York, said Barbara Nadel, an architect who specializes in securing buildings against natural disasters and terrorism.

The city's 49-page seismic code requires builders to prepare for significant shifting of the earth. High-rises must be built with certain kinds of bracing, and they must be able to safely sway at least somewhat to accommodate for wind and even shaking from the ground, Nadel said.

Buildings constructed in Boston in recent decades had to follow stringent codes comparable to anything in California, said Vernon Woodworth, an architect and faculty member at the Boston Architectural College. New construction on older structures also must meet tough standards to withstand severe tremors, he said.

Story: 'Hey East Coast, the entire West Coast is mocking you right now'

It's a different story with the city's older buildings. The 18th- and 19th-century structures in Boston's Back Bay, for instance, were often built on fill, which can liquefy in a strong quake, Woodworth said. Still, there just aren't many strong quakes in New England.

The last time the Boston area saw a quake as powerful as the one that hit Virginia on Tuesday was in 1755, off Cape Ann, to the north. A repeat of that quake would likely cause deaths, Woodworth said. Still, the quakes are so infrequent that it's difficult to weigh the risks versus the costs of enacting tougher building standards regionally, he said.

People in several of the affected states won't have much time to reflect before confronting another potential emergency. Hurricane Irene is approaching the East Coast and could skirt the Mid-Atlantic region by the weekend and make landfall in New England after that.

In North Carolina, officials were inspecting an aging bridge that is a vital evacuation route for people escaping the coastal barrier islands as the storm approaches.

© 2012 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

Video: Cracks found in Washington Monument after quake

  1. Closed captioning of: Cracks found in Washington Monument after quake

    >>> now to the aftermath of the earthquake that rattled the east coast yesterday, perhaps 100 million people felt it. today damage assessment and the big concern is what they found at the washington monument . tom costello joins me from there. tom?

    >> reporter: hi, lester, good evening, they found a crack at the very top of the washington amo monument, it's about an inch, about four feet long. at least for now, this 555 foot building is off limits to the public. more surveillance camera video of the moment it all started, 1:51 p.m . and everyone, it seems has a story to tell.

    >> it was like this big shake and then a pause for like three seconds and then it shook more.

    >> reporter: in washington the chief concern remains the cracks near the top of the 137-year-old washington monument , it remains closed as structural engineers survey the damage.

    >> they need to probably go back tomorrow and again on friday to determine what is going to be necessary.

    >> reporter: on capitol hill , crews have cleaned up the paint chips and plaster that fell from the capitol dome but today more cracks were found running along the walls of two committee hearing rooms. mean while the national cathedral has no insurance to pay for the damage, it's also closed for now. the most powerful quake to hit the east coast in 67 years shook buildings and people as far north as montreal, as far south as atlanta and chicago to the west. at the epicenter of the quake, 90 miles south of d.c. in mineral, virginia, they spent today shoring up and picking up. while the overall damage was minor, yesterday may have been a much-needed wakeup call to disaster or terror response plans. in d.c. , traffic was in gridlock yesterday.

    >> when everybody leaves at the same time, we don't make a lot of progress.

    >> reporter: as d.c. 's mass exodus hit the highways.

    >> the one thing the district of columbia should learn from yesterday's event is evacuation planning as it's currently predicated is not working.

    >> reporter: and across the east coast , cell phone service was also overwhelmed and jammed while texting generally got through. amazing information there, texting and also social media works. remember that in the event of an emergency. but also amazing is there was no significant to dams, to nuclear power plants , to bridges, to airports so. even tomorrow, most of the federal buildings that were closed today along with d.c. area schools are expected to reopen.

Interactive: East Coast tremor

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