Curiosity is slated to touch down on Mars in August 2012. Curiosity's spacecraft will make a series of trajectory corrections, with the first coming in about two weeks.
updated 11/27/2011 12:42:49 PM ET 2011-11-27T17:42:49

With a picture-perfect launch behind it, NASA's new Mars rover has begun the long trek to the Red Planet.

The car-size Curiosity rover blasted off Saturday at 10:02 a.m. ET from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station here and separated from its Atlas 5 rocket right on schedule, about 45 minutes later.

The huge robot — the centerpiece of NASA's $2.5 billion Mars Science Laboratory mission, or MSL — is now zipping through space, chewing up the 354 million miles (570 million kilometers) between Earth and Mars. The journey will take eight and a half months.

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"We are in cruise mode," said MSL project manager Pete Theisinger of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. "Our spacecraft is in excellent health, and it's on its way to Mars." [Video: Curiosity Blasts Off]

A time to celebrate
MSL aims to determine if the Red Planet is, or ever was, capable of supporting microbial life. The mission began taking shape in 2003 and was originally supposed to launch in 2009, but it couldn't meet that deadline. The two-year slip helped boost MSL's overall cost by 56 percent.

The mission's prior troubles may have made today's successful launch especially sweet for the MSL team.

"Today's a great day," Theisinger said. "Very happy guy."

However, Theisinger was quick to point out that liftoff is just phase one of a complicated mission that is slated to last a minimum of about two Earth years.

"We all recognize that this is the prologue to the mission — necessary, but not sufficient," he said. "We all have our work cut out for us in the next eight and a half months."

Preparing for Mars arrival
Curiosity is slated to touch down on Mars in August 2012. But mission team members won't exactly be putting their feet up during the 1-ton rover's long cruise.

For example, Curiosity's spacecraft will make a series of trajectory corrections, with the first coming in about two weeks. The team will also perform an engineering test in the next few weeks, with a check of the rover's 10 science instruments coming shortly thereafter, Theisinger said.

Mission scientists will spend the cruise phase preparing for Curiosity's work on the Martian surface. They'll stage 10 separate operational readiness tests over the next eight and a half months, gauging their ability to recognize and respond to potential issues that may crop up, researchers said.

"You're basically just kicking the tires and trying to shake it all out," Caltech's John Grotzinger, MSL's project scientist, told

Curiosity will land at the 100-mile-wide (160-kilometer-wide) Gale Crater. A mound of sediment rises 3 miles (5 km) into the Martian air from Gale's center. The rover will investigate this mountain's many layers, scrutinizing the red dirt and rocks for any signs that Martian environments may once have been habitable.

Learn more about Curiosity's mission (800kb PDF)

The rover's landing will likely inspire more nervous hand-wringing than its launch did. A rocket-powered sky crane will lower Curiosity down to the Martian surface on cables, a daring maneuver that has never been tried before.

The MSL team spent a lot of time designing and validating this unprecedented landing system, and they'll keep working over the next eight and a half months to give it the best chance of succeeding.

But Saturday offered the scientists and engineers who brought Curiosity from the drawing room to the launchpad a chance to reflect and exult — at least for a little while.

"Science fiction is now science fact," said Doug McCuistion, head of NASA's Mars exploration program. "We're flying to Mars." 

You can follow senior writer Mike Wall on Twitter:@michaeldwall. Follow for the latest in space science and exploration news on Twitter@Spacedotcomand on Facebook.

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Video: Multimillion-mile Mars journey begins

  1. Transcript of: Multimillion-mile Mars journey begins

    LESTER HOLT, anchor: The folks at NASA are calling it the monster truck of Mars . And tonight the world's biggest extraterrestrial explorer is on its way to the red planet . For NASA , this new mission in search of life carries high hopes and high risks. NBC 's Tom Costello has our report.

    Offscreen Voice: Five, four, three, two, one...

    TOM COSTELLO reporting: With the Saturn Five liftoff at the Kennedy Space Center , NASA has launched its most sophisticated and ambitious mission to Mars yet. Just traveling the 154 million miles to the red planet will take more than eight months. Then next August, a high-risk landing as a supersonic parachute slows the science lab 's descent to Mars . Sixty feet above the planet, a sky crane will gently lower the rover named Curiosity onto the Martian surface, leaving Curiosity on its own to begin looking for signs of life, past or present.

    Ms. PAMELA CONRAD (Astrobiologist): Do we anticipate that we'll learn a whole lot about Mars ? Absolutely. Do we know what specifically that will be? No clue.

    COSTELLO: Curiosity is a six-wheeled rover standing more than six feet tall, able to drive long distances under a hot Martian sun, analyzing rock and soil samples and then transmitting those findings back to Earth . NASA has carefully selected the landing zone on Mars in the Gale Crater , where a huge mountain rises right out of the crater floor. Scientists believe they see layers of sedimentary deposit here that they hope will help them understand more about Mars ' history, but also what happened to the lakes and rivers.

    Mr. BRIAN HYNEK: This is Gale Crater .

    COSTELLO: Brian Hynek is a planetary science professor and Mars expert at the University of Colorado . The evidence he says now seems clear that Mars once had a very warm and wet environment.

    Mr. HYNEK: Microbial life could've persisted for hundreds of millions of years on ancient Mars and perhaps even today.

    COSTELLO: And that possibility poses a big problem. NASA has gone to great lengths to ensure Curiosity doesn't carry any Earth germs that could contaminate life on Mars . High resolution cameras have already detected what appear to be large ice sheets buried under the Martian surface. Curiosity 's mission, to determine whether life is or ever was buried there, too. Tom Costello, NBC News, Washington.

Photos: Mars Curiosity rover

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  1. A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket carrying NASA's Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover lifts off from Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Cape Canaveral, Fla., Saturday, Nov. 26, 2011. (Terry Renna / AP) Back to slideshow navigation
  2. The Mars Science Laboratory, and accompanying Atlas V rocket, is hoisted into place at Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. (Kim Shiflett / NASA) Back to slideshow navigation
  3. NASA technicians look over the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover during inspections at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. (NASA) Back to slideshow navigation
  4. NASA technicians examine the wheels of the Mars Science Laboratory rover. (Dutch Slager / NASA via AP) Back to slideshow navigation
  5. Technicians examine the turret at the end of the Mars Science Laboratory's arm. The turret weighs 73 pounds and holds the machines that will touch the rocks and soil on Mars. (Frankie Martin / NASA) Back to slideshow navigation
  6. The Mars Science Laboratory's Entry, Descent and Landing Instrument will measure heat shield temperatures and atmospheric pressures during the spacecraft's high-speed, extremely hot entry into the Martian atmosphere. (Lockheed Martin) Back to slideshow navigation
  7. NASA engineers stand by Mars Science Laboratory's aeroshell, a conical shell that will help protect the rover Curiosity, a robot the size of a car, from the searing temperatures of atmospheric entry when it lands on Mars, shown at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., Monday, April 4. (Damian Dovarganes / AP) Back to slideshow navigation
  8. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA mega-rover, Curiosity's wheels and suspension are shown at the Mars Science Laboratory. Technicians, dressed in protective suits, has been working around the clock inside a clean room at the JPL assembling the craft, testing its science instruments, before shipping it off to Florida for launch later this year. (Damian Dovarganes / AP) Back to slideshow navigation
  9. There are 10 instruments on board Curiosity that can analyze samples to help determine if the Red Planet is or has ever been "favorable" to microbial life, according to NASA.

    See more close-up Curiosity pics by Joseph Linaschke at Boing Boing (Joseph Linaschke / Back to slideshow navigation
  10. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA engineers work on Curiosity, a mega-rover at the Mars Science Laboratory. (Damian Dovarganes / AP) Back to slideshow navigation
  11. NASA Mars Curiosity's mega-rover's Mars Science Laboratory Mast Camera is seen at the Mars Science Laboratory, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. (Damian Dovarganes / AP) Back to slideshow navigation
  12. Curiosity's wheels are individually powered, and enable the mega-rover to turn 360 degrees while staying in place.

    See more close-up Curiosity pics by Joseph Linaschke at Boing Boing (Joseph Linaschke / Back to slideshow navigation
  13. NASA engineers work on Curiosity. Last month, the mega-rover was subjected to "near-vacuum pressure," according to NASA, with temperatures colder than minus-200 degrees Fahrenheit, in order to simulate the environmental stresses of the Martian surface. (Damian Dovarganes / AP) Back to slideshow navigation
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  1. Image:
    Terry Renna / AP
    Above: Slideshow (13) Mars Curiosity rover
    Slideshow (24) The greatest hits from Mars
  3. Image:
    Y. Beletsky / ESO
    Slideshow (12) Month in Space: January 2014

Explainer: 11 amazing things the Mars rover can do

  • The car-sized Curiosity rover is a 1-ton robotic beast that will take planetary exploration to the next level.

    Curiosity rover is the centerpiece of NASA's $2.5 billion Mars Science Laboratory. Its main goal is to assess whether the Red Planet is, or ever was, capable of supporting microbial life. The rover will employ 10 different science instruments to help it answer this question once it touches down on the Red Planet. Here's a brief rundown of these instruments (and one more on the rover's heat shield).

    — Mike Wall,

  • Mast Camera (MastCam)

    T.A. Dutch Slager / NASA / JPL-Caltech
    This view of the Curiosity rover's remote sensing mast shows the ChemCam in the white box at top, and the two cameras of the Mastcam system just below. Additional navigation cameras are placed farther outward from the Mastcam cameras.

    The MastCam is Curiosity's workhorse imaging tool. It will capture high-resolution color pictures and video of the Martian landscape, which scientists will study and laypeople will gawk at.

    MastCam consists of two camera systems mounted on a mast that rises above Curiosity's main body, so the instrument will have a good view of the Red Planet environment as the rover chugs through it. MastCam images will also help the mission team drive and operate Curiosity. (Photos of NASA's Curiosity Rover)

  • Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI)

    NASA / JPL-Caltech
    The Curiosity rover's Mars Hand Lens Imager will acquire color close-up images of rocks and surface materials. A Swiss Army knife is shown for scale.

    MAHLI will function much like a high-powered magnifying glass, allowing Earthbound scientists to get up-close looks at Martian rocks and soil. The instrument will take color pictures of features as tiny as 12.5 microns — smaller than the width of a human hair.

    MAHLI sits on the end of Curiosity's five-jointed, 7-foot (2.1-meter) robotic arm, which is itself a marvel of engineering. So mission scientists will be able to point their high-tech hand lens pretty much wherever they want.

  • Mars Descent Imager (MARDI)

    NASA / JPL-Caltech / MSSS
    The Mars Descent Imager is flying on the Curiosity rover. A Swiss Army knife is included in the picture for purposes of showing scale.

    MARDI, a small camera located on Curiosity's main body, will record video of the rover's descent to the Martian surface (which will be accomplished with the help of a hovering, rocket-powered sky crane). (Video: Curiosity's Peculiar Landing)

    MARDI will click on a mile or two above the ground, as soon as Curiosity jettisons its heat shield. The instrument will then take video at five frames per second until the rover touches down. The footage will help the MSL team plan Curiosity's Red Planet rovings, and it should also provide information about the geological context of the landing site, the 100-mile-wide (160-km) Gale Crater.

  • Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)

    NASA / JPL-Caltech
    This illustration of the mechanical configuration of the SAM shows the three instruments and several elements of the Chemical Separation and Processing Laboratory.

    SAM is the heart of Curiosity; at 83 pounds (38 kilograms), it makes up about half of the rover's science payload.

    SAM is actually a suite of three separate instruments — a mass spectrometer, a gas chromatograph and a laser spectrometer. These instruments will search for carbon-containing compounds, the building blocks of life as we know it. They will also look for other elements associated with life on Earth, such as hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.

    The SAM instrument suite is located in Curiosity's main body. The rover's robotic arm will drop samples into SAM via an inlet on the rover's exterior. Some of these samples will come from the interior of rocks, powder bored out by a 2-inch (5-centimeter) drill situated at the end of the arm.

    None of Curiosity's predecessors could get deep into Martian rocks, so scientists are excited about the drill.

    "For a geologist that studies rocks, there's nothing better than getting inside," said MSL deputy project scientist Joy Crisp, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.

  • Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin)

    NASA / JPL-Caltech
    Clean-room workers carefully steer the hoisted CheMin instrument toward its installation into the Curiosity rover.

    CheMin will identify different types of minerals on Mars and quantify their abundance, which will help scientists better understand past environmental conditions on the Red Planet.

    Like SAM, CheMin has an inlet on Curiosity's exterior to accept samples delivered by the rover's robotic arm. The instrument will shine a fine X-ray beam through the sample, identifying minerals' crystalline structures based on how the X-rays diffract.

    "This is like magic to us," Crisp told X-ray diffraction is a leading diagnostic technique for Earthbound geologists, she explained, but it hasn't made it to Mars yet. So CheMin should help Curiosity provide more definitive mineral characterizations than previous Mars rovers such as Spirit and Opportunity have been able to achieve.

  • Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam)

    NASA / JPL-Caltech
    An artist's conception shows the Curiosity rover's ChemCam firing its laser at Martian rock.

    For sheer coolness, it's tough to beat ChemCam. This instrument will fire a laser at Martian rocks from up to 30 feet (9 meters) away and analyze the composition of the vaporized bits.

    ChemCam will thus enable Curiosity to study rocks that are out of reach of its flexible robotic arm. It will also help the mission team determine from afar whether or not they want to send the rover over to investigate a particular landform.

    ChemCam is composed of several different parts. The laser sits on Curiosity's mast, along with a camera and a small telescope. Three spectrographs sit in the rover's body, connected to the mast components by fiber optics. The spectrographs will analyze the light emitted by excited electrons in the vaporized rock samples.

  • Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS)

    NASA / JPL-Caltech
    The sensor head for the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer is installed during testing. The head is 7.8 centimeters or about 3 inches tall.

    APXS, which sits at the end of Curiosity's arm, will measure the abundances of various chemical elements in Martian rocks and dirt.

    Curiosity will place the instrument in contact with samples of interest, and APXS will shoot out X-rays and helium nuclei. This barrage will knock electrons in the sample out of their orbits, causing a release of X-rays. Scientists will be able to identify elements based on the characteristic energies of these emitted X-rays.

    Spirit and Opportunity were outfitted with a previous version of APXS and used the instrument to help elucidate the prominent role water has played in shaping the Martian landscape. (Latest Mars Photos From Spirit and Opportunity)

  • Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN)

    NASA / JPL-Caltech / Roscosmos
    This diagram shows how the Detector of Albedo Neutrons could be used to sense the presence of subsurface water on Mars.

    DAN, located near the back of Curiosity's main body, will help the rover search for ice and water-logged minerals beneath the Martian surface.

    The instrument will fire beams of neutrons at the ground, then note the speed at which these particles travel when they bounce back. Hydrogen atoms tend to slow neutrons down, so an abundance of sluggish neutrons would signal underground water or ice.

    DAN should be able to map out water concentrations as low as 0.1 percent at depths up to 6 feet (2 m).

  • Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD)

    NASA / JPL-Caltech
    The RAD instrument is mounted just below the Curiosity rover's top deck, with the charged particle telescope pointing toward the zenith.

    The toaster-size RAD is designed specifically to help prepare for future human exploration of Mars. The instrument will measure and identify high-energy radiation of all types on the Red Planet, from fast-moving protons to gamma rays.

    RAD's observations will allow scientists to determine just how much radiation an astronaut would be exposed to on Mars. This information could also help researchers understand how much of a hurdle Mars' radiation environment might have posed to the origin and evolution of life on the Red Planet.

  • Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS)

    This diagram shows the location of the REMS booms on the rover's mast, plus detailed views showing the location of wind, humidity and temperature sensors.

    This tool, which sits partway up Curiosity's mast, is a Martian weather station. REMS will measure atmospheric pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, air temperature, ground temperature and ultraviolet radiation.

    All of this information will be integrated into daily and seasonal reports, allowing scientists to get a detailed look at the Martian environment.

  • MSL Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI)

    Lockheed Martin
    The MEDLI instrument package is the black box in the middle left of this photo, which shows the heatshield for the Mars Science Laboratory.

    MEDLI isn't one of Curiosity's 10 instruments, since it was built into the heat shield that protected the rover during its descent through the Martian atmosphere. But it's worth a few words here.

    MEDLI measured the temperatures and pressures that the heat shield experienced as the MSL spacecraft streaked through the Martian sky. This information can tell engineers how well the heat shield, and their models of the spacecraft's trajectory, performed.

    Researchers will use MEDLI data to improve designs for future Mars-bound spacecraft.

    You can follow senior writer Mike Wall on Twitter: @michaeldwall. Follow for the latest in space science and exploration news on Twitter @Spacedotcom and on Facebook.

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