Image: Kashmir bus passengers
Rafiq Maqbool  /  AP
Passengers on Thursday cross the bridge to India at Kaman Post, the de facto border that divides India- and Pakistan-controlled Kashmir. A new bus service began operating across the embattled region for the first time in 60 years.
msnbc.com news services
updated 4/7/2005 7:10:22 AM ET 2005-04-07T11:10:22

Buses departed Thursday from both the Indian and Pakistani sides of divided Kashmir with a few dozen passengers aboard, heading across one of the world’s most heavily militarized frontiers in a symbolic step toward peace in a region riven by violence.

Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh described the buses as “a caravan of peace” before seeing off the passengers in buses decorated with marigold garlands. Some of the passengers hugged Singh before boarding.

‘Caravan of peace’
The premier then waved a blue flag to mark the start of the bus service to Pakistan-controlled Kashmir. The bus service comes as one of the clearest positive steps in the two nations’ often-stumbling peace process.

“The caravan of peace is now on its way. No one can stop it,” Singh said, praising Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf for helping Kashmiris realize a dream of visiting members of their divided families.

“The new climate will help India and Pakistan to settle their disputes peacefully,” he said.

At about the same time Thursday, the first bus set off from the capital of the Pakistani portion of Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, on the inaugural trip in the opposite direction.

Attack reported
Militants tried to attack the bus carrying passengers to Pakistani Kashmir, but were stopped by security forces and no passengers were hurt, Indian television channels reported.

At least four television channels reported firing, and some said a grenade had been thrown at one of the buses crossing towards Pakistan, near Singhpura in Indian-controlled Kashmir. But NDTV news channel said authorities had told them it was a case of accidental fire, without elaborating. 

Journey 60 years in making
A total of about 50 passengers rode the buses, half from Pakistani-controlled Kashmir and half from the Indian portion. Most are from families that have been divided since Kashmir was split between the rival nations almost 60 years ago.

Passengers will travel on the buses to the bridge that spans the Line of Control — the de facto border that divides Kashmir — which they will cross on foot to board buses on the other side and drive to Muzaffarabad or Srinagar, the capitals of two Kashmirs.

The winding trans-Kashmir road, once the region’s main highway, has been closed for nearly six decades, since India and Pakistan each took control of part of Kashmir in 1948.

Waiting passengers attacked
The service went ahead in spite of an apparent separatist attack Wednesday on a building where passengers in Indian Kashmir were awaiting their departure while under police protection. Four militant groups warned that passengers “should not board this coffin to Muzaffarabad.”

Six people were injured in the attack, but the passengers escaped unharmed. Two militants had made it through the gate of the heavily guarded tourism complex, opening fire in the courtyard. It was not clear how they made it past the guards, but a gunbattle quickly broke out and the main building in the complex caught fire, shooting flames more than 100 feet into the air and filling the air with black smoke.

The passengers, who were in protective custody because of fears they could be targeted by separatist militants, were in a separate building that did not catch fire.

Separatist threats
Most of the region’s militant groups oppose any steps forward in the peace process and see the bus service as a gimmick that gets them no closer to their separatist goals.

A man identifying himself as Samir Abdullah claimed responsibility for Wednesday’s attack on behalf of the four militant groups. “Our threat was not hollow,” he said in a telephone call to The Associated Press.

More than a dozen Pakistan-based rebel groups have been fighting for Kashmir’s independence from India or its merger with Pakistan since 1989. At least 66,000 people, mostly civilians, have been killed in the conflict.

Kashmir, the only majority Muslim state in largely Hindu India, is claimed in its entirety by both India and Pakistan, and has been at the root of two of their three wars.

The Associated Press and Reuters contributed to this report.

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