Fears of further unrest as anniversary of anti-government demonstrations approaches.
Turkish newspapers report that seized data from the mine indicated sensors showed high gas levels inside the mine.
The arrests were the first of the inquiry and came five days after a fire sent deadly carbon monoxide coursing through the mine in Soma.
Earlier a new fire broke out in the mine, hindering the rescue teams. Taner Yildiz said it had been extinguished and two more dead workers found.
Turkish police fired tear gas and water cannons Friday to disperse protesters in the town of Soma, where some 300 miners died.
Grieving relatives buried victims from the Soma mine disaster in simple graves Thursday.
"We believe that there are no more than 18 people inside the mine," Turkey's energy minister Taner Yildiz said Friday.
Mourners sang and prayed for departed miners on Thursday over the graves of relatives killed in Turkey's worst mining accident in Soma.
The death toll in the Soma mine disaster climbed to 282 Thursday, as Turkey began to mourn amid a wave of strike and public protests.
NBC News' Richard Engel gets a first-hand account from a survivor of Turkey's mine disaster.
Women wailed and sang songs about their relatives as bodies were taken from coffins and lowered into their graves. Pictures of the lost relatives were pinned onto their clothing.
Anger is growing over the Soma mine disaster after pictures emerged of senior government aide Yusuf Yerkel kicking a protester.
The death toll in a Turkish coal mining accident has climbed to 274, making it Turkey's worst mining disaster in history.
Protests began on Turkey's streets after it emerged that a proposal to investigate the ill-fated mine was defeated in parliament last month.
The business of tunneling into the earth and sending men down to retrieve coal and minerals and metals has always been deadly.
Several thousand demonstrators gathered in Istanbul to protest a mine disaster that killed at least 274, and thousands more were expected to join.
More than 200 miners were killed in a collapsed coal mine in the western Turkish city of Soma, with many more still trapped.
A horrific explosion and fire at a coal mine in western Turkey killed 201 workers, wounded 80, and trapped scores of others underground Tuesday.