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'Monster of Florence' profiled by FBI

An FBI profile of the Italian serial killer known as the "Monster of Florence" says the killer acted alone in the murders of eight couples on lover's lanes around Tuscany.

Incident Victims Date

  1. Locci/Lobianco Aug 21-22, 1968
  2. Gentil core/Pittini Sept 14-15, 1974
  3. Foggil/DeNuccio Aug 6-7, 1981
  4. Baldi/Campi Oct 22-23, 1981
  5. Mainardi/Migliorini Aug 19-20, 1982
  6. Meyer/Rusch Sept 9-10, 1983
  7. Stefanacci/Rontini July 29-30, 1984
  8. Kraveichvili/Mauriot Sept 8-9, 1985

Prepared by Special Agents (SA) John T. Dunn, Jr., John Galindo, Mary Ellen O'Toole, Fernando M. Rivera, Richard Robley and Charles Wagner in consultation w/ Special Agent (SSA) Ronald Walker and other members of the NCAVC.

The limited victim background data available for the construction of this analysis did not indicate that any of the victims of this series of homicides could be considered to have been and particularly high risk for potential violent criminalization. Although all victims were apparently engaged in activities that might be considered risky, i.e. sexual activity at known "lover's lanes" or camp grounds during hours of darkness, the demographics of the surrounding area as well as the absence of information suggesting that these areas are considered high-crime areas, would suggest that these victims could be considered low-risk. As low-risk victims, it is not likely that they were particularly targeted for assault by the offender, but were simply victims of opportunity who were randomly available to him at the time and place he chose to engage in his assaults.

It is not probable that the offender knew or was personally acquainted w/ any of the victims. Rather, they were strangers to him and became victims simply b/c they were available to him when he chose the site for his attacks.

M.E. report
The autopsy reports for these eight incidents indicate that the assailant, in all but three cases, resorted to multiple attacks on his victims, using a firearm and at least one bladed weapon. The female victims of incidents #1 and #6 escaped post-mortem mutilation for varying reasons:

  • The presence of a child in the victims vehicle in incident #1 may have inhibited the assailant and the fact that the victims of one incident were able to flee the immediate assault site precluded the offender from following through w/ his typical mutilation. Incident #6 involves a homosexual couple, and will be addressed in later portions of this report.
  • It is significant to report that the assailant used multiple weapons in virtually all his attacks, and that his use of a knife, scalpel or other bladed instrument involved stabbing, slashing, as well as the cutting away of many of his female victim's breasts and vaginal/pubic areas. The significance of the nature, pattern and distribution of these injuries will be fully addressed in subsequent portions of this analysis.

As a result of the unavailability of other forensic reports (toxicology/serology), no further comment can be made regarding these areas. It is noted that none of the victims bear evidence of sexual penetration by the assailant.

Crime assessment
No attempt will be made to reconstruct a precise chronology or sequential scenario of this series of crimes. However, an analysis of these crimes from the perspective of significant offender behavior will be provided.

These eight assaults were, in the opinion of the analysts examining the submitted materials, perpetrated by the same offender, who acted alone. The attacks themselves are (?) classified as "lust murders." FBI research into crimes of violence indicates that lust murders typically involve the mutilation and/or displacement of the victim's breasts , genitals or rectum. Lust murders are distinguished from sadistic homicide in that lust murders involve the immediate incapacitation of the victim followed by post-mortem mutilation and the absence of typical sexual penetration. Instead of penis penetration, the lust murderer typically inserts foreign objects into victims vagina or rectum as well evidenced in incident #2 where a grapevine was inserted into the victim's vagina.

Site selection
It is likely that the offender is familiar w/ areas in which these crimes were committed. The offender is sufficiently familiar w/ these areas to know that they are routinely frequented by "dating" couples who may engage in various stages of sexual activity in the relative privacy these "lover's lanes" afforded them. Additionally, these areas are remote and generally rural in nature, and likely to be known only to individuals w/ an intimate knowledge of the Florence area. It is believed that the offender became more specifically familiar w/ the individual assault sites as a result of surveillance and pre-offense site selection. The remoteness of the areas allowed the offender to feel comfortable in knowing that he would not be detected during the time it took to complete his attacks.

FBI research has shown that offenders of this type tend to assault in areas where they feel comfortable and low-risk, such as near the offender's own place of work or residence.

Based upon review of the materials provided, the offender appeared to utilize the following techniques, once he had made his site selection. The offender stalked his victims at the scene in order to obtain a position of advantage and to observe and hear the victims. The offender is then likely to have surveilled his victims until such time that they were pre-occupied and engaged in some form of sexual activity. It was at that moment that the offender chose to strike, utilizing surprise, speed and an immediately incapacitating weapon. This particular style of approach is generally indicative of an assailant who has doubts about his own ability to control his victims, who feels sufficiently inadequate in interacting with "LIVE" victims, or who feels incapable of direct confrontation.

The offender utilizing a "blitz" approach, discharged his weapon multiple times at close range, focusing first on the male victim, thereby negating his most immediate threat. Once the male victims had been neutralized, the offender felt sufficiently safe to perpetrate his attack upon his female victims. The expenditure of numerous rounds indicates that this assailant wanted to ensure that both victims were dead before beginning his post-mortem mutilation of the female victims. The female victims are the obvious focus of the offender's attention, the males represented only an obstacle that had to be removed.

In homosexual case (#6) - offender failed to mutilate and believed to have been disgusted to learn both were males. "Possession" and ritual are very important to this offender. This would explain why the female victims were generally removed some distance from the vehicles containing their male companions. The need for possession, as well as the offender's ritualized display of anger with women in general is further demonstrated by the removal of the victim's breasts and genitals. Despite the absence of penis penetration/ejaculation by the offender, these are all sexually motivated offenses. Mutilation of his victim's sexual organs represents both the sexual inadequacy of the offender as well as his anger toward them.

The .22 caliber weapon consistently used by the offender is a weapon of choice for him. During the 17 years spanning these attacks, it is quite likely that the offender would have had the opportunity to replace this weapon with another, perhaps a more powerful one. He has not, however, chosen to do so. Furthermore, in spite of having left ejected cartridge casings behind at all the crime scenes, the offender has retained his weapon throughout this series of assaults. This offender is quite comfortable handling and using this weapon, and may well have acquired such familiarity with weapons through legitimate means, such as hunting, target shooting or military training. The consistent use of the same weapon as well as the ritualized manner of approach/assaults strongly suggest that the weapon is part of a "kit" that this offender used exclusively for his attacks and for no other reason. This "kit" is likely to contain a firearm, a knife and other bladed weapon, ammunition, and possibly specific clothing or other implements that he uses only during these assaults. The offender's overall behavior at the scene, including his use of the same and specific implements of crime, suggest that the ritualism inherent in this series of attacks is so important to the offender that he must repeat his offenses in an identical manner in order to achieve satisfaction.

It is noted that a .22 caliber bullet (unspent) identical to those used in these assaults, was located in front of a local hospital. It is not likely that the offender left the bullet there in an effort to taunt police, but was dropped accidentally by the offender who may have had some legitimate reason to visit the hospital or vicinity, i.e. sought medical treatment or worked at the hospital or in the vicinity. It is also possible that he may have visited the hospital if he believed the victim's bodies to have been taken there after the discovery.

Research into similar crimes has shown that lust murderers often remove items from their victims. These items may be articles of clothing, or more personal possessions such as a piece of jewelry, or lock of hair, etc. Frequently, lust murderers may remove part of the victims body, such as a finger, ear or more particularly, a nipple, breast or other sexual organs. These items are taken as a souvenir, and enable the offender to relive the event in his fantasies for a period of time. These items are often retained for a fairly extensive period of time, once they serve no more useful purpose, the offender is likely to discard them occasionally at the scene of the murder or at the victim's grave site. Occasionally, the lust murderer may consume the victim's body part in order to tally "possess" his victim.

The mailing of the genitalia from the female victim of the last assault is indicative that this offender attempted to "taunt" police, suggesting that the publicity and attention directed at this case was important to him, and also indicating an increased sense of confidence on his part.

Offender traits and characteristics
a) Contemporary research conducted by the NCAVC coupled w/ offender based statistics, strongly suggests that crimes of interpersonal violence usually occur intra-racially. Therefore based on available statistics and the absence of specific information to the contrary in these attacks, your offender is more likely to be a white male of Italian origin who is native to the area.

b) The offender is most likely to have been in his mid to late 20's when he began this series of assaults in 1968. This would currently place him in the mid 40's age range. "...if your offender has a lengthy criminal history w/ periods of institutionalization or incarceration, he could be several years older than this age range."

c) The assailant is very familiar w/ the specific crime scenes and with the Florence area in general. He is comfortable there, and is likely to have close ties to the area evidenced by his lengthy absences but subsequent return to the area on two occasions. Likely to be a native to the area, and may still have family members residing there.

d) The offender is best described as having average intelligence. Likely to have completed his secondary education or the equivalent within the Italian education system.

e) He is most likely to be employed in a semi-skilled capacity requiring use of his hands. He is not likely to have much contact with the public in his job due to his feelings of inadequacy. He may exhibit erratic work habits.

f) The offender is most likely to have lived alone during the years spanning these assaults in a lower middle class neighborhood. If not living by himself, he will have resided w/ some family member on whom he is at least in part financially dependent, such as his mother, aunt, grandmother or older sister. He is not likely to be married, since he is not able to sustain successful relationships w/ peer-age women.

g) The offender is sexually inadequate and immature person who has had little if any consensual sexual contact with a peer-age female. He is likely to suffer from a sexual dysfunction

  • Research suggests the offender use of alcohol or drugs prior to the assaults serves to lower inhibitions and to build up his courage to proceed w/ the assaults.
  • The offender is likely to have a preference for pornography, particularly which depicts graphic male-dominant violence.
  • The offender is likely to have served in the military
  • Offenders of this nature rarely stop their assaults for long periods of time without specific reason.
  • It is noted that this assailant was not active in the Florence area between 1968 - 1974 and 1974 - 1981. Probable that offender resided elsewhere during those periods or was otherwise inhibited from acting. Legitimate absence could have resulted from a change of jobs, attending school, foreign travel/work, military service, or was incarcerated for totally unrelated offense during this period and institutionalized for treatment of a mental illness.

h) The offender's residence is consistent with his economic status, and is not likely to be far from the area where he committed these offenses. As stated previously , his most likely place of work or residence is apt to fall within the cluster center or in close proximity to his first attack.

Post-offense behavior
The assailant feels no remorse for his victims nor guilt. His primary emotion will have been the fear of possible discovery. Following each incident he is more likely to have been nervous or edgy and may have appeared pre-occupied to those around him.

Following each assault, the offender would have gone to a place of comfort and safety, most probably his own residence...cleaned himself and his clothing as well as his implements, and would have returned his weapons to their "hiding" place for storage until the next assault. Items of a personal nature that he removed from his victims are likely to have been placed in a safe, secure place accessible only to the assailant.

The grotesque nature of these crimes have had the effect of shocking and horrifying the community. Therefore the offender closely followed all media reports of the crimes and is very likely to have cut articles pertaining to the offenses our of newspaper and placed them in a "scrap book" or album. He may also have kept diaries or journals.

The offender may have returned, and still may return to the scene of previous offenses to relive in his fantasies, his prior experiences. Shortly after the discovery of bodies at various sites, the offender may well have visited the scene to assess the extent of the police investigation through indirect or informal contact with the police.

The offender is likely to assault until apprehended, incapacitated, or otherwise inhibited from acting.