You're paying more to travel, and not just for your plane ticket. Every pound counts as the number of carriers charging for all pieces of checked luggage racks up. So it stands to reason that the public might wonder why airlines don't charge extra for passengers with significant overages of a more, uh, personal nature.
Southwest Airlines calls them "customers of size." Medical professionals would use the term "clinically obese." Bloggers and message board habitués use names that are less polite, but all imply that the passengers in question are overweight.
Many people assume that obese people are getting something of a free ride. But are they? Nearly all airlines keep it very quiet, but many have policies — informal or formal — in place to make sure that passengers of size carry their own weight.
It's a tricky business, Airfarewatchdog.com has found. In some places — Canada, for instance — it just got trickier. A winter ruling barred Canadian airlines from discriminating against "clinically obese" customers. Southwest was successfully sued by a passenger who was told she needed to purchase a second seat after she had already boarded — too late, the ruling found. An ample Air France passenger won a case after citing humiliation at the hands of staff who wrapped packing tape around him in public to prove that he was too fat to sit one seat, forcing him to purchase another.
Here's the funny part about those lawsuits: At the time, both Southwest and Air France had official policies in place for dealing with overweight passengers. Southwest's policy has been around for years. It states that if staff members determine that the passenger will not fit in one seat, the passenger must purchase a second, a cost which will be reimbursed if the flight is not full.
Air France's policy was looser, urging passengers who knew that not having an empty seat next to them would be a problem, to handle it on their own in advance. (As of this writing, Air France passengers "with a high body mass" are warned that if they do not purchase an extra seat, they may not be allowed to board.) In the end, both airlines were punished for being up-front with their customers, even if the execution of the policy perhaps needed work. This is, after all, a terrifically sensitive matter.
Different airlines, different policies
Perhaps that is why, for many airlines, the topic tends to be along the lines of 'That Which We Don't Speak Of.' Ask United Airlines what rules it has in place for dealing with the situation, and you'll hear a pregnant pause, followed by a terse "We have no policy."
American Airlines is more forthcoming, but hastens to emphasize that in no way does it require its passengers to purchase two seats. Spokesman Tim Wagner said passengers whose weight exceeds 250 pounds should know that there are "possible limitations that could result in American not being able to accommodate them." He also said that the airline urges passengers to "recognize ahead of time that they may need to purchase two seats." Wagner also cited an FAA regulation to which all airlines adhere: If you can't snap the seatbelt (after the extension is added, that is) you can't fly.
JetBlue Airways doesn't mind taking a more straightforward stance. Spokesperson Alison Eshelman said its policy "requires" larger customers who need an additional seat for their own comfort to buy one in advance. If they do not, and the crew cannot accommodate them, they will be required to buy the seat in any case, with no refunds. (However, Eshelman noted, truthfully, that JetBlue does offer its passengers a little more wiggle room with its larger-than-average seat width on board the airline's A320 aircraft.)
Does size matter?
But what of the growing awareness among the traveling public that it costs the airline more to transport an obese passenger than a passenger of average weight? Those hoping for any type of joy in that department should sit on their hands. Delta's Susan Elliott said that the airline "has no plans to implement any policy that discriminates against any of our passengers." Translation: This is one hot potato nobody is going to touch.
Here's a look at how different airlines deal with the "customer of size."
Passengers should plan on purchasing an extra seat or risk being asked to do so at the airport by staff. If the flight is not sold out, the passenger may claim a refund.
The airline states that passengers over 250 pounds should recognize that there may be limitations to the service that the airline can provide. However, it does not require that you purchase an extra seat automatically.
The airline has no policy whatsoever.
As with Southwest, passengers are encouraged to know their needs in advance. If staff members determine that two seats are required, the seat will be sold at the lowest possible fare, with a refund available if there is one or more open seats on the flight.
Passengers with "high body mass" may receive a 25 percent discount on an extra seat, knowing that if they choose not to buy the seat, they may risk not being able to fly.
You are required to buy a second seat, and there are no refunds.
Delta Air Lines
The airline "works to accommodate" passengers with special needs. Upon request and availability, it will try to make sure the next seat is unoccupied. However, if the plane is full, you will most likely be asked to leave the flight and buy a second seat on the next available flight. (You can actually count on this being a fairly typical practice on most airlines.)
Do you think clinically obese passengers should be required to buy an extra seat? Take this poll.