President Bush on Wednesday announced that 16 individuals and the DuPont Co. will receive the nation’s highest honors in science and technology. The 2002 National Medals of Science and National Medals of Technology are to be awarded at a White House ceremony on Nov. 6.
THE NATIONAL Medal of Science laureates are:
James E. Darnell, Rockefeller University, Biological Sciences: A leader in researching how cells retrieve information from DNA, Darnell and colleagues achieved the first direct evidence for RNA processing and for signaling genes from the cell surface.
Evelyn M. Witkin, Rutgers University, Biological Sciences: Witkin was largely responsible for creating the study of DNA mutagenesis and DNA repair. She showed a repair process in bacteria by observing that slowing the growth rate of bacteria cultured in the dark prevented the accumulation of a class of ultraviolet ray-induced mutants, which became known as the dark repair mechanism.
John I. Brauman, Stanford University, Chemistry: Brauman advanced scientific knowledge by demonstrating differences in chemical reactivity in the presence or absence of solvent, making it possible to infer the role solvent plays in chemical stability and reactivity.
Leo L. Beranek (retired), BBN Technologies, Engineering: Beranek designed new communications and noise reduction systems for World War II aircraft and made other military technology advances. In music, his seminal 1962 text, “Music Acoustics and Architecture,” became a standard for many years beyond its publication.
James G. Glimm, Stony Brook University, Mathematics: Glimm is noted for his outstanding contributions to shock wave theory, which explains the intense compression in natural phenomena, such as air pressure in sonic booms. His work in quantum field theory and statistical mechanics had a major impact on mathematical physics and probability.
W. Jason Morgan, Princeton University, Physical Sciences: Morgan is credited with explaining two profound concepts — plate tectonics and mantle plumes — the essential underpinnings of modern seismology, volcanology and mantle geochemistry.
Richard L. Garwin, Council on Foreign Relations, Physical Sciences: Garwin invented and patented magnetic resonance techniques now used in medical MRI equipment. In the 1960s and 1970s, his inventions laid the foundation for superconducting electronic circuitry.
Edward Witten, Institute for Advanced Study, Physical Sciences: Witten is the world leader in “string theory,” the attempt to describe in a unified way all the known forces of nature.
The National Medal of Technology laureates are:
Calvin H. Carter, Cree Inc.: A pioneer in the development of silicon carbide semiconductor materials.
Haren S. Gandhi, Ford Motor Company: A research pioneer in automotive technology to improve environmental standards.
Carver A. Mead, California Institute of Technology: A microelectronics pioneer, teacher and entrepreneur.
Nick Holonyak, Jr., Microelectronics Lab, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; M. George Craford, LumiLeds Lighting; and Russell Dean Dupuis, Georgia Institute of Technology: Inventors and innovators in the LED technology field spanning 40 years.
John J. Mooney, Engelhard Corp. (retired) and Carl D. Keith, Engelhard Corp. (retired): Principal inventors of the three-way catalytic converter.
DuPont Co.: For policy and technology leadership in the phase-out and replacement of chloroflurocarbons in the environment during the past three decades.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.