The terrorism incubator in Yemen, birthplace of the Christmas Day airliner attack, is forcing the United States and allies to pour millions of dollars into a shaky government that officials suspect won't spend the money wisely and isn't fully committed to the battle against al-Qaida.
Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and other world leaders meet in London on Wednesday to hash out a plan. Efforts to stabilize the impoverished nation, where the government is battling al-Qaida strongholds with American help, are suddenly urgent after years of faltering.
"Clearly December 25th had an electrifying impact," said Daniel Benjamin, State Department coordinator for counterterrorism. The failed attempt to bring down the Detroit-bound airliner by a Nigerian tied to Yemen's radicals made "many members of the international community think that this was a time to get past the excuses and get back to work."
U.S. officials are uneasy, however, about Yemen's government. President Ali Abdullah Saleh's army has only sporadically pursued the growing al-Qaida threat in Yemen's vast tribal territory. The United States wants its aid to be closely monitored, and tied to economic and political reforms.
American worries about Yemen's commitment heightened last year after several Yemeni detainees who had been released from Guantanamo Bay prison resurfaced as leaders of the country's growing al-Qaida faction.
At the same time, the Yemeni government can be undermined by appearing too close to the Americans. The Yemeni people are virulently anti-Israel, and by extension anti-American. Sensitive to that concern, U.S. officials have played down the Pentagon's efforts to provide intelligence and other assistance to the Yemeni military.
The effort, Benjamin acknowledged, will have to overcome a history of failed commitments on all sides.
"The international community made a number of commitments to Yemen and they haven't always been delivered, and Yemenis, as we know, have also sometimes made commitments and haven't always followed through," he said. "The important thing is that the (Yemeni) government's doing the right thing now."
U.S. officials say they want to combine a deeper involvement with the Yemenis on the counterterrorism front with programs designed to alleviate poverty, illiteracy and rapid population growth.
A key U.S. complaint is that Yemen's pursuit of al-Qaida insurgents inside the country has been fitful at best. The low point was the deadly October 2000 al-Qaida attack on the Navy destroyer USS Cole in Yeman's Aden harbor that killed 17 American sailors.
The Yemeni government largely defeated al-Qaida forces in 2003, but the terror group was able to rebound more as the government turned its focus to flare-ups by other insurgents. Then, early last year, al-Qaida groups in Yemen and Saudi Arabia, Yemen's northern neighbor, merged, and turned their efforts toward Islamic jihad beyond those countries' borders.
In the wake of the Christmas attack, Yemen's military has struck repeatedly at al-Qaida sites. On Tuesday, a Yemeni security official said that 43 people, including several foreigners, are being interrogated there for links to the failed attempt to blow up the Detroit-bound airliner.
Last week, after a meeting in Washington with Clinton, Yemeni Foreign Minister Abu Bakr al-Qirbi stressed "our commitment to continue the fight against terrorism and against radicalization."
Clinton praised Yemen's recent military actions against the al-Qaida faction there but insisted that extremism could not be rooted out without a focus on economic development, something Saleh has yet to push to U.S. satisfaction.
"Our relationship cannot be just about the terrorists," she said. "As critical as that is to our security and our future ... the best way to really get at some of these underlying problems that exist is through an effective development strategy."
The Yemeni foreign minister praised the American effort, saying that "with the new administration, we have seen a greater understanding to the challenges faced by Yemen and the willingness to help Yemen."
The U.S. currently has a three-year, $121 million development and economic assistance program with Yemen. Separately, it is providing nearly $70 million in military aid this year.
Those numbers are likely to increase, but throughout the past decade, Washington's annual assistance to Yemen hovered in the low $20- to $25-million range.
"Yemen is often overlooked by U.S. policy makers," said Jeremy Sharp, author of a Congressional Research Service report on the country. He described the U.S.-Yemeni relationship as "tepid" with a lack of strong military-to-military ties, commerce and cross-cultural exchanges.
The push for closer ties are also tempered by concerns about Saleh's rule, which has been punctuated by severe disagreements over how Yemen has handled terror suspects, including several detainees implicated in the Cole bombing and detainees released from Guantanamo Bay.
Terrorists from both of those groups have reportedly become leaders of the new al-Qaida offshoot in Yemen.
But the Yemeni government's response to the terror threat was "basically catch-and-release and that needs to change," said one U.S. official familiar with counterterrorism cooperation with Yemen. "We need to have confidence that the bad guys are locked up." The official spoke on condition of anonymity due to the sensitivity of the matter.
Al-Qirbi insisted last week that terrorists "are apprehended and some of them have been prosecuted. Of course, there are some who are at large and these are being pursued by our security forces."
Complicating matters is the fact that Yemeni officials have historically been adverse to any visible U.S. involvement there, as that could likely trigger greater anti-American sentiment among the religiously conservative population.
Some argue that the administration's approach should center on Yemen's Arab neighbors, notably Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, which have the cash and the proximity to help.
"An effective U.S. role would be a quiet one that helps stoke Arab leadership on this issue, frames problems and responses, and monitors compliance," Jon Alterman of the Center for Strategic and International Studies said.
"The United States needs to play a role directing Yemen's unfolding drama," he said, "not starring in it."