The former editor of Playboy Indonesia turned himself in to authorities on Saturday to begin his two-year jail sentence, a lawyer said.
Erwin Arnada was convicted of distributing indecent pictures to the public and profiting from them after the Supreme Court in August overturned an earlier acquittal.
The case highlights the growing pressure from hardline Islamic groups for a more restrictive climate in Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim country. Most residents are moderate in their approach to Islam.
The small but vocal Islamic Defenders Front group started legal proceedings against Arnada after the first edition of Playboy Indonesia hit newsstands in 2006. A handful of issues was published, containing no nudity.
The group also vandalized a building housing the office of Playboy magazine in Jakarta.
"He turned himself in to honor the court's decision. We plan to lodge a motion for a case review next week," Todung Mulya Lubis, a lawyer representing Arnada, told Reuters.
Arnada, who received many expressions of sympathy on his Twitter account, tweeted: "They can lock me up, but my spirit and ideas will remain free."
Apart from Playboy, Indonesia already had its own versions of men's magazines Maxim and FHM, as well as homegrown publications, which feature color pictures of women in minimal clothing.
In 2008, Indonesia passed a controversial anti-pornography law, seen as a threat to the country's reputation for tolerance.