Discord erupted Monday in Europe over whether the military operation in Libya should be controlled by NATO, after Turkey blocked the alliance's participation while Italy issued a veiled threat to withdraw the use of its bases unless the alliance was put in charge.
Germany also questioned the wisdom of the operation, and Russia's Vladimir Putin railed against the UN-backed airstrikes mounted so far against Moammar Gadhafi's force by Britain, France and the United States outside of their NATO roles.
"The Security Council resolution is flawed, it allows everything and is reminiscent of a medieval call for a crusade," Putin said. "In fact, it allows intervention in a sovereign state."
A day after Turkey declined to support a military plan for the alliance to enforce a Libya no-fly zone, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan said he could support the NATO effort — but only if it does not turn into an occupation.
"NATO should only enter Libya to determine that Libya belongs to Libyans and not to distribute its natural resources and richness to others," Erdogan said during a visit to Saudi Arabia.
There had been widespread expectation that the strikes against Libya would be overseen by NATO, and the hastily improvised nature of the military coalition has drawn criticism.
The United States, France and Britain initiated attacks on Libya on Saturday, raining cruise missiles and precision bombs on Libyan military targets on the ground, including Gadhafi's residential compound. Other countries have since joined in.
Diplomats said Turkey, a NATO member that sees itself as a bridge between Europe and the Muslim world, was angered by its exclusion from an emergency summit Saturday in Paris organized by French President Nicolas Sarkozy, at which the 22 participants agreed to launch armed action against Gadhafi's military.
France ended up making the first strikes, and the diplomats said Turkey's envoys had warned that NATO's participation in the airstrikes could damage the alliance's standing in the Islamic world at a time when it is heavily engaged in the war in Afghanistan.
The diplomats, who are accredited to NATO, spoke on condition of anonymity because of the sensitivity of the discussions.
NATO's participation in any military action against Libya would require the approval of all 28 NATO members. But Turkish Foreign Ministry spokesman Selcuk Unal denied that his country was grounding NATO.
"Turkey is not blocking NATO, Turkey has been contributing to the preparations with a positive approach since the beginning," Unal told The Associated Press.
The NATO diplomats said the North Atlantic Council, NATO's top decision-making body, was unable to reach agreement Monday, and would take up the issue again on Tuesday for the fourth day in a row.
Even if such an order is adopted, it would take several days before aircraft under NATO command could start flying missions over Libya. The order also is likely to restrict NATO's air forces to making sure there are no unauthorized flights over Libya, with no mention of attacks on ground targets, one of the diplomats said.
France seeks leadership
Turkey was apparently not the only obstacle. Diplomats said France was seeking political leadership of the mission, but this was opposed by a number of other nations, which wanted NATO firmly in charge. Another sticking point was just how aggressive the enforcement of the no-fly zone should be, as several nations strongly opposed continuing the air strikes on Libyan ground targets.
From Chile, President Barack Obama said the United States would transfer leadership of the military operation to other, unnamed participants within a "matter of days, not weeks."
"NATO will be involved in a coordinating function because of the extraordinary capacity of that alliance" but details of the transfer — when it would take place and to whom — would be provided by U.S. military leaders, Obama said.
Italy warned Monday that it would review the use of its bases by coalition forces if NATO does not take over. The country lies just across the Mediterranean from Libya and is allowing the use of seven of its military bases.
"Italy will begin reflecting on the use of its bases," said Foreign Minister Franco Frattini, according to Italian news reports. "If there is a multiplication of command centers, we must study a way in which Italy retakes control of its bases."
Italian Premier Silvio Berlusconi insisted the mission should pass to NATO's command, and said Italian planes would not launch any missiles. Speaking in Turin, he said coordination among partners must be "different from the one that has been established so far."
British Prime Minister David Cameron, however, praised the performance of the informal coalition, saying its forces had neutralized Libyan air defenses and helped avert a bloodbath.
The prime minister told British lawmakers that Gadhafi had violated a U.N. Security Council resolution by moving troops toward rebel-held cities and also had lied to the international community.
"Gadhafi responded to the U.N. resolution by declaring a cease-fire, but straightaway it was clear he was breaking that promise," Cameron said.
Cameron stressed that through airstrikes, coalition forces helped avert what could have been "a bloody massacre in Benghazi."
The aims behind coalition airstrikes — which Cameron called "necessary, legal and right" — were to suppress Libyan air defenses to enable the enforcement of a no-fly zone and to protect civilians.
"Good progress has been made on both fronts," Cameron said.
'Coalition of the willing'
Calling intervention in Libya a "coalition of the willing," Cameron said Britain wants "to internationalize this to the maximum degree possible" and outlined commitments from other nations.
While no Arab planes have flown in the mission, Cameron said the Qataris are providing a number of jets to help enforce the no-fly zone and the U.K. is doing everything it can to encourage other Arab nations to come forward.
Cameron declined to say whether Gadhafi was himself a potential target of the airstrikes.
Support from the Arab League was critical to obtaining U.N. approval for international action to protect Libyan civilians. But after the international operation began, the league chief Amr Moussa was quoted as telling reporters in Cairo that it should not have included attacks on Libyan targets on the ground.
EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton said Monday that Moussa had been misquoted, but German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle offered the comments as evidence that Germany's decision not to participate in the operation was justified.
"This does not mean that we are neutral," Westerwelle said. "This does not mean that we have any sympathy with the dictator Gadhafi. It means that we see the risks, and when we listen closely to what the Arab League yesterday said."
Westerwelle said Germany would focus on broadening economic and financial sanctions against the Gadhafi regime.
On Monday, the EU extended its travel ban and the freeze on assets to another 11 Libyan officials and its assets freeze to a further nine Libyan companies. It did not name the people or the companies involved.
And in France, diplomats were hosting members of Libya's opposition for talks in Paris. Foreign ministry spokesman Bernard Valero noted France has had regular contacts with Libya's transitional national council — a top opposition group.
Analysts said Turkey does not completely oppose military action, but wants to promote its role as a broker for peace in Libya.
To be sure, the U.S. and Turkey are in final negotiations to make Turkey the U.S. represenative in Libya, a U.S. official told NBC News. The U.S. formally suspended operations at its embassy in Tripoli several weeks ago.
Turkey has already served to help secure the release of the four New York Times journalists who were freed from Libya on Monday.
Turkey has openly opposed intervention in Libya."Turkey with its Muslim identity is emerging as a peace-builder and prefers reducing of the presence of foreigners and its policies might differ from those of Europe or the United States," said Ilter Turan, a professor of political science at Istanbul's Bilgi University.
Turkey has vast business interests in Libya, most notably in the construction sector, and had relatively friendly ties with Gadhafi. More than 30,000 Turks were working in Libya before the uprising against Gadhafi's 42-year rule began last month.