UN: Sharp drops in opium, coca production in 2010

Image: Afghan poppy farmer, Zareen, stands in his poppy field
Afghan poppy farmer, Zareen, stands in his poppy field in May 25, 2011, in Faizabad, Badakshan, Afghanistan.Paula Bronstein / Getty Images, file
/ Source: msnbc.com news services

World opium production decreased sharply last year due to a blight in Afghanistan but is expected to rebound, and coca growing and cocaine production also fell, the United Nations reported Thursday.

Still, the United States remained the biggest market for cocaine in the world, and European cocaine demand was rapidly catching up, the Vienna-based U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime said in its annual report.

Global coca cultivation fell by one-sixth in 2010, accompanied by a significant drop in cocaine production in Colombia, a major supplier.

The agency said nearly 5 percent of the world's population took illicit drugs at least once in the previous year, with many users turning from traditional opiates to synthetic and prescription drugs.

U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon noted the ties between the world's illicit drug market and terrorism and world unrest in a statement accompanying the report.

"The $61 billion annual market for Afghan opiates is funding insurgency, international terrorism and wider destabilization," Ban said. "In West Africa, the $85 billion global cocaine trade is exacerbating addiction and money-laundering while fueling political instability and threats to security."

"Every $1 billion of pure cocaine trafficked through West Africa earns more than 10 times as much when sold on the streets in Europe,' he added.

The report listed cannabis as the most widely produced and consumed illicit drug, saying up to 203 million people — about 4.5 percent of the world population — took it at least once over a 12-month period.

Various plant diseases combined to cut Afghanistan's opium production in half last year and UNODC said production could fall a little further in 2011.

Myanmar's production increases While poor yields resulted in a 45-percent decline in global opium production between 2007 and 2010, that reversal appears temporary, the agency said. Agency chief Yuri Fedotov predicted a likely "rebound to high levels in 2011."

Afghanistan accounted for 74 percent of global opium production in 2010, down from 88 percent in 2009.

Myanmar's share of global production reached 12 percent, up from 5 percent in 2007. The area under cultivation there fell by 21 percent to 185,900 hectares (459,400 acres) between 2007 and 2009 but it rose to 195,700 hectares last year, UNODC said.

Myanmar's military rulers said in March that nearly one-sixth of the country's illicit opium crop had been destroyed.

A nominally civilian government has taken over since but the army still pulls the strings behind the scenes. Analysts say several top generals enjoy close ties with Myanmar businessmen linked to the opium trade.

For cocaine, the United States remained the biggest market, with consumption estimated at 157 tons in 2009 — equal to 36 percent of the global share.

Europe, particularly Western and Central Europe, were second in terms of market share, with an estimated consumption of 123 tons.

The U.N. agency noted "massive declines in recent years" of overall world cocaine use.

Still, it said consumption in Europe had doubled over the past decade — with the estimated value of the European cocaine market at $36 billion a year, approaching that of the United States at $37 billion.

The global area under coca cultivation shrank in 2010, declining 6 percent to 149,100 hectares (368,000 acres).

UNODC said cocaine production had fallen sharply in Colombia since 2007, which offset increases in Peru and Bolivia.

Users turning to 'legal highs'
With many nations fighting drug production and trafficking, users are turning to so-called "legal highs" — substitutes for illicit stimulants such as cocaine or ecstasy.

The use of highly addictive methamphetamine is increasing in East Asia and figures from 2009 also show a rebound in North America after several years of decline.

Methamphetamine contributed to a record in synthetic drug seizures in 2009, with nearly 16 tons of that substance discovered by law enforcement agencies compared to less than 12 tons in the previous year.

"Drugs cause some 200,000 deaths a year," said Fedotov. "Since people with serious drug problems provide the bulk of drug demand, treating this problem is one of the best ways of shrinking the market."