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Children have been subjected to extreme torture during the Syrian Civil War -- including electric shocks, sexual violence and other tactics such as ripping out fingernails, a United Nations report says.

Government forces have kept children as young as 11 in detention centers alongside adults and subjected them to extreme levels of torture, either to extract confessions or simply to humiliate them, according to the first report on the conflict's effect on minors published by the United Nations Monday and released online on Tuesday.

The report also includes details of the Syrian Armed Forces invading towns and then using women and children as human shields in an attempt to prevent rebel forces from attacking.

The U.N. said "grave violations against children" had been committed by both government and rebel forces.

Children died in mass killings allegedly committed by government forces in Dar'a, Hama, Homs and Tartus in 2012 and 2013, while rebels, who use young teenagers as fighters, have killed children in summary executions, the report says.

Of the 100,000 people estimated killed since the war broke out in March 2011, the U.N. believes some 10,000 are children.