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A federal appeals court on Friday upheld a regulatory safety finding against SeaWorld in the drowning of a trainer who was pulled under by a killer whale at the theme park.
In a 2-1 decision, the appeals court said SeaWorld's challenge to the finding was unpersuasive and that the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission was correct when it found that the SeaWorld park in Orlando, Fla., had violated a federal workplace safety law.
The court said SeaWorld had exposed trainers to recognized hazards when working in close contact with killer whales during performances.
On Feb. 24, 2010, SeaWorld trainer Dawn Brancheau was interacting with Tilikum, a killer whale, before a live audience in a pool at Shamu Stadium in Orlando when Tilikum grabbed her and pulled her off a platform into the pool, then refused to release her.
Tilikum became the focus of the 2013 documentary film "Blackfish."
The administrative record in the case establishes that the hazard arising from trainers' close contact with killer whales in performance is preventable, wrote federal appeals judge Judith Rogers. Given evidence of continued incidents of aggressive behavior by killer whales toward trainers, SeaWorld could have anticipated that abatement measures it had applied after other incidents would be required, Rogers added.
SeaWorld said it had not decided whether to seek an appeal.
"We voluntarily deployed several new safety measures, including removing trainers from the water during shows," SeaWorld said in a statement.
The general duty clause of the Occupational Safety and Health Act requires employers to furnish a place of employment free from recognized hazards that are likely to cause death or serious physical harm.
In its arguments to the federal government, SeaWorld said the finding that it exposed its employees to a recognized hazard is unsupported by substantial evidence. The company contended that when some risk is inherent in a business activity, the risk cannot constitute a recognized hazard.
— The Associated Press