Shortly after 5 p.m. local time a man driving a motorbike detonated a large bomb at a busy roundabout in the north city of Kunduz near a group of police officers, provincial police chief spokesman Sayed Sarwar Hussaini said.
"As a result of a suicide attack 10 policemen were killed, including the head of the traffic department and the head of the counter-terrorism office," said Hussaini.
Four civilians and five other police officers were wounded in the bombing, he said.
No one has claimed responsibility for the attack but militants, including the Taliban, are active in the area.
The attack came a day after a suicide bomber in a car killed at least five civilians and wounded 15 others when he attacked a NATO convoy in the north eastern province of Kapisa.
Responsibility for that attack was claimed by the Taliban via spokesman Zabihullah Mujahid.
Taliban militants have been waging an 11-year war against Afghan President Hamid Karzai and a U.S.-led NATO force.