The Trump administration is threatening to cut funding for a Middle East studies program run by the University of North Carolina and Duke University, arguing that it's misusing a federal grant to advance "ideological priorities" and unfairly promote "the positive aspects of Islam" but not Christianity or Judaism.
An Aug. 29 letter from the U.S. Education Department orders the Duke-UNC Consortium for Middle East Studies to revise its offerings by Sept. 22 or risk losing future funding from a federal grant that's awarded to dozens of universities to support foreign language instruction. The consortium received $235,000 from the grant last year, according to Education Department data.
A statement from the UNC-Chapel Hill says the consortium "deeply values its partnership with the Department of Education" and is "committed to working with the department to provide more information about its programs." Officials at Duke declined to comment. The Education Department declined to say if it's examining similar programs at other schools.
Academic freedom advocates say the government could be setting a dangerous precedent if it injects politics into funding decisions. Some said they had never heard of the Education Department asserting control over such minute details of a program's offerings.
"Is the government now going to judge funding programs based on the opinions of instructors or the approach of each course?" said Henry Reichman, chairman of a committee on academic freedom for the American Association of University Professors. "The odor of right wing political correctness that comes through this definitely could have a chilling effect."
More than a dozen universities receive National Resource Center grants for their Middle East programs, including Columbia, Georgetown, Yale and the University of Texas. The Duke-UNC consortium was founded in 2005 and first received the grant nearly a decade ago.
Education Secretary Betsy DeVos ordered an investigation into the program in June after North Carolina Rep. George Holding, a Republican, complained that it hosted a taxpayer-funded conference with "severe anti-Israeli bias and anti-Semitic rhetoric." The conference, titled "Conflict Over Gaza: People, Politics and Possibilities," included a rapper who performed a "brazenly anti-Semitic song," Holding said in an April 15 letter.
In a response, DeVos said she was "troubled" by Holding's letter and would take a closer look at the consortium.
The inquiry joins a broader Education Department effort to root out anti-Semitism at U.S. universities. Speaking at a summit on the topic in July, DeVos attacked a movement to boycott Israel over its treatment of Palestinians, calling it a "pernicious threat" on college campuses.
Last year, the department reopened an investigation at Rutgers University in which an outside group was accused of charging Jewish attendees for admission while allowing others in for free.
In the UNC-Duke case, the department's findings did not directly address any bias against Israel but instead evaluated whether the consortium's proposed activities met the goals of the National Resource Center program, which was created in 1965 to support language and culture initiatives that prepare students for careers in diplomacy and national security.
Investigators concluded that the consortium intended to use federal money on offerings that are "plainly unqualified for taxpayer support," adding that foreign language and national security instruction have "taken a back seat to other priorities." The department cited several courses, conferences and academic papers that it says have "little or no relevance" to the grant's goals.
"Although a conference focused on 'Love and Desire in Modern Iran' and one focused on Middle East film criticism may be relevant in academia, we do not see how these activities support the development of foreign language and international expertise for the benefit of U.S. national security and economic stability," the letter said.
Investigators also saw a disconnect between the grant's mission and some academic papers by scholars at the consortium. They objected to one paper titled "Performance, Gender-Bending and Subversion in the Early Modern Ottoman Intellectual History," and another titled "Radical Love: Teachings from Islamic Mystical Tradition."
The letter accused the consortium of failing to provide a "balance of perspectives" on religion. It said there is "a considerable emphasis" placed on "understanding the positive aspects of Islam, while there is an absolute absence of any similar focus on the positive aspects of Christianity, Judaism or any other religion or belief system in the Middle East."
It added that there are few offerings on discrimination faced by religious minorities in the Middle East, "including Christians, Jews, Baha'is, Yadizis, Kurds, Druze and others." Department officials said the grant's rules require programs to provide a "full understanding" of the regions they study.
Jay Smith, a history professor at UNC and vice president of its chapter of the American Association of University Professors, said the letter amounts to "ideologically driven harassment." He said the Education Department official who signed the letter, Robert King, "should stay in his lane and allow the experts to determine what constitutes a 'full understanding' of the Middle East."
But Holding, the Republican who sparked the investigation, said it's clear the consortium stepped outside the bounds of the grant. The Education Department has an obligation to ensure its funding is used as intended, he said, adding that other schools should make sure they're following the rules.
"This has fallen through the cracks, and this could be going on at other educational institutions," he said in an interview. "If the department's providing the money and giving guidance on how the money is to be used, I think they can be as in the weeds as they need to be."
The National Resource Center grant program provided a total of $22 million to language programs at about 40 universities last year. Of that total, about $3.5 million was for Middle East programs.
Along with its objection to the nature of the UNC-Duke offerings, the department also said it is concerned that, out of 6,800 students enrolled in the consortium's courses, just 960 were enrolled in Middle East language classes, and that only 11% of the program's graduates pursue careers in government, while 35% takes jobs in academia.
Department officials instructed the consortium to provide a "revised schedule of activities" for the next year and to explain how each offering promotes foreign language learning and advances national security interest.