The petition, exclusively obtained by NBC's "TODAY" show, was filed in Miami-Dade County, Florida, where the couple recently sold their home. Jonas' filing also says it is in the best interest of their two children that he and Turner "have shared parental responsibility."
Representatives for Jonas and Turner did not immediately respond to requests for comment.
Jonas and Turner agreed to a prenuptial agreement in April 2019, which Jonas is asking the court to uphold, according to the filing.
According to The Wall Street Journal, Jonas and Turner sold their Miami home for $15 million in August after it had been on the market for months.
News of a rift between Jonas, the pop star, and Turner, the "Game of Thrones" star, first began over the holiday weekend, when it was reported that Jonas was consulting with divorce attorneys. Fans of the couple expressed shock online, as the pair have rarely shared information about their relationship but appeared to be doing well based on social media posts and public appearances.
Turner was seen with Jonas at the opening of the Jonas Brothers' tour last month at Yankee Stadium, and fans noted that Jonas wore his wedding ring onstage in Austin, Texas, after rumors of their split emerged.
The couple eloped in Las Vegas in 2019 and then had an intimate ceremony a month later at Château de Tourreau in the south of France. Turner gave birth to their first child, a daughter named Willa, in July 2020, and their second child was born two years later.
Turner said in an interview on "The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon" last year that she knew she would marry Jonas from the first time they met in 2016.
"We went out and we hung out at a bar with, like, all my friends and all his friends, and they all came back to my apartment, and we had drinks after," Turner said. "I remember him leaving and I just ... I wept to my brother, 'I love this man so much.'"
Jonas described how being with Turner also changed him as a person in the documentary "Chasing Happiness," which followed his siblings as their band reunited. He said his relationship with Turner also helped him understand his older brother, Kevin, who fell in love with his wife very young.
"The impact of falling in love has made me want to be a better man, a better person, and ultimately made me a better brother," Jonas said.
As celebrity parents, Jonas and Turner have actively tried to keep their children out of the spotlight. They have not revealed the name of their second child and do not post their kids on social media.
Turner accidentally posted a video of her daughter on an Instagram story in May and took it down immediately, asking anyone who had saved the clip to delete it.
"We have always advocated for our kids’ rights to privacy so sharing this publicly is against anything I stand for," Turner said. "Our children deserve the right to grow up out of the public eye, to learn and grow in private.”