"The House of Commons again votes against all options ... On Wednesday, the U.K. has a last chance to break the deadlock or face the abyss," tweeted Guy Verhofstadt, the European Parliament's top Brexit official.
Here are five different ways Brexit could play out in the coming week.
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Lawmakers have had the opportunity to vote three times on the withdrawal agreement that May painstakingly negotiated with the E.U. Each time, they have said "no thanks."
The nearly 600-page deal includes a divorce bill worth between £35 and £39 billion ($45 billion - $51 billion), as well as the framework for a future relationship and a nearly two-year transition period.
May insists that her deal delivers on the things that matter to the people — control of budgets, immigration policy and laws.
But many lawmakers in her own party feel it keeps the U.K. too closely tied to the E.U. They particularly object to a section known as the Irish backstop — an insurance policy to avoid a physical border being reinstated between Northern Ireland, which is part of the U.K., and the Irish Republic, which is in the E.U.
Despite its repeated rejections, May’s plan may not be dead yet. She reportedly wants to bring it back again this week, in the hope of persuading rebel lawmakers within her own party and beyond that, though imperfect, it is better than any alternative.
A motion for an even closer future relationship, the option touted by Boles, would keep the trading relationship between the U.K. and E.U. relatively similar to the status quo. It would however, hamper the U.K.’s ability to limit immigration from within the bloc, something many Brexit supporters strongly reject.
Any change to May's deal would need to be approved by E.U. leaders.
The government’s own analysis and most experts agree that a "no-deal" Brexit would significantly shrink the economy, compromise security and raise prices, while supermarkets have warned of shortages of fresh produce. In preparation, the state-run National Health Service is stockpiling medicine and reportedly even body bags.
However, some of Parliament’s more hardline Brexit supporters are actively calling for this cliff-edge scenario. They see these bleak forecasts as scaremongering by an establishment that wants to remain in the E.U.
Support for a second public vote on the terms of Brexit has seen increasing support from both the people and lawmakers. A proposal to hold a confirmatory referendum on any deal and framework for a future relationship got the most votes of any option floated Monday night, but was defeated by 292-280.
The E.U. has said that in the event of a second referendum, it would grant a delay to the Brexit date. This would mean that the U.K. would need to elect representatives to the European Parliament in E.U.-wide election this May, something that the prime minister has said she strongly opposes.
This is the option May’s ruling Conservative Party likely dreads. Recent polls show the party either tied or even slightly behind the opposition Labour Party. But a general election could alter the parliamentary arithmetic and open up a path that ends the gridlock.
May’s majority is shaky — and shrinking with the resignations of four members of her party in the last two months. With Boles’ departure, the party holds only 313 out of 650 seats in Parliament. Her government is propped up by a right-wing Northern Irish party, which has so far withheld its support for her withdrawal agreement.
The prime minister appears cornered, with pro-Brexit Conservatives threatening to topple their own government if May tacks toward a "soft" Brexit, and Conservatives who oppose a "hard" Brexit threatening the same if she opts for the "no-deal" route and the country departs on April 12.
The E.U. has said that in the event of a general election, it would extend the Brexit date.
Rachel Elbaum is a London-based editor, producer and writer.