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Iranian President Hassan Rouhani declared in a series of tweets that "there is not much hope" that the international conference on the future of Syria would succeed in ending the violence.
On Monday United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki Moon withdrew an invite to Iran, a long time ally of Syrian leader Bashar Assad, after Tehran said it didn't support the June 2012 political transition deal that is the basis for the talks.
Rouhani, who has presided over a dramatic improvement in Shiite Iran's relations with the West, tweeted that he hoped the talks would bring "peace and stability" to the region.
Syria's three-year civil war pitting largely Sunni rebels against President Bashar Assad's Alawite community, which is related to Shiite Islam, has also drawn in Saudi Arabia who back the rebels.