Photos: 50 years of views from the moon

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  1. Up-close exploration of the moon, Earth's only natural satellite, began in 1959 when the Soviet Union launched its Luna 1 spacecraft on a flyby mission. NASA quickly followed up with missions of its own. Since then, the Europeans, Japan, China and India have launched their own lunar exploration programs. This view shows the moon as seen from the international space station. Click the "Next" arrow above to check out 11 images from the moon made over the last 50 years. (NASA) Back to slideshow navigation
  2. 1959: Far side in full view

    In October 1959, the Soviet Union's Luna 3 spacecraft - the third successfully launched to the moon - made history as the first probe to image the far side of the moon. The photos were fixed and dried on the spacecraft and beamed back to Earth. Though fuzzy by today's standards, the images showed stark differences from the near side, including relatively few dark areas, called lunar maria. (RSA via NASA) Back to slideshow navigation
  3. 1966: A restored ‘Earthrise'

    In 1966 and 1967, NASA sent a series of Lunar Orbiter spacecraft to collect detailed images of moon's surface in preparation for the Apollo program. The tapes were then put in storage. Decades later, researchers with the Lunar Orbiter Image Recovery Project collected the vintage hardware required to play back the imagery. That imagery was digitized , reproducing the images at a much higher resolution than previously possible. On Nov. 11, 2008, the project researchers released this enhanced photograph of Earth rising above the lunar surface, originally made by Lunar Orbiter 1 in 1966. (LOIRP / NASA) Back to slideshow navigation
  4. 1968: The most famous 'Earthrise'

    On Christmas Eve 1968, Apollo 8 astronauts Frank Borman, Jim Lovell and William Anders made history as the first humans to orbit the moon. They were scouting its surface for a suitable landing spot for future missions. But the sight of Earth rising above the moon's horizon caught their - and the world's - attention. The photograph, called "Earthrise," is among the most famous ever made from the moon. (NASA) Back to slideshow navigation
  5. 1969: One small step

    On July 20, 1969, an estimated 1 billion people around the world were glued to television screens to watch astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of Apollo 11, climb down from the lunar module spacecraft for a stroll on the moon. As his foot touched the lunar surface, he famously said "That's one small step for (a) man, one giant leap for mankind." This image is a black-and-white reproduction from the telecast, showing Armstrong stepping down from the lunar module's ladder. (NASA Johnson Space Center) Back to slideshow navigation
  6. 1969: Man on the moon

    Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin, shown here, accompanied Armstrong for the famous walk on the moon. This iconic image is one of the few that shows Armstrong on the lunar surface - as seen in the reflection on the spacesuit's visor. The astronauts walked around on the lunar surface for about two and a half hours. (NASA) Back to slideshow navigation
  7. 1994: Looking for ice

    This mosaic image of the moon's southern polar region, made by the Clementine spacecraft in 1994, suggested that the region could harbor water ice within regions of its craters that are never lit by the sun. The water ice would be left over from impacting comets. Scientists have debated the evidence for and against water ice at the poles ever since the Clementine discovery. The current era of lunar exploration could resolve the debate. If water ice exists, it could help quench the thirst of future human colonists and be used to make fuel for rockets. (NASA / JPL / USGS) Back to slideshow navigation
  8. 2006: European moon probe crashes

    On Sept. 3, 2006, the European Space Agency's SMART-1 spacecraft went out with a bang - a planned crash landing into a volcanic plain called the Lake of Excellence. The impact, shown here, was captured by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. (The black lines are a processing error due to the brightness of the event.) The spacecraft was launched in 2003 primarily to test an ion propulsion system, which uses energy captured by the sun to produce a stream of charged particles. The slow-and-steady propulsion system may be used on future interplanetary missions. (Christian Veillet / CFHT via AP) Back to slideshow navigation
  9. 2007: China targets the moon

    China made its first major strides in the lunar exploration game with the launch of the Chang'e 1 spacecraft in October 2007. The orbiter was sent to make a detailed, 3-D map of the moon's surface. Premier Wen Jiabao unveiled the first image at a ceremony in Beijing, shown here. Chang'e 1's 16-month mission ended with a controlled crash. The country reportedly plans to launch lunar rovers in 2010 and 2017, and a manned mission to the moon by 2020. (Huang Jingwen / XINHUA NEWS AGENCY) Back to slideshow navigation
  10. 2008: India joins the lunar club

    The Indian Space Research Organization successfully launched its Chandrayaan 1 spacecraft on Oct. 22, 2008, for a mapping mission to the moon. A probe released from the mothership took this picture of the lunar surface during its descent to a planned crash landing at the south pole. The Indian space agency plans to use this and other data for a lunar rover mission in 2011 and, eventually, a manned mission. (ISRO via EPA) Back to slideshow navigation
  11. 2009: Japan orbiter watches eclipse

    Some eclipse enthusiasts travel the globe to glimpse alignments of the sun, Earth and moon. Japan's Kaguya probe did them one better: It shot this sequence of a Feb. 10, 2009, eclipse from its lunar orbit. The image shows the view of the sun from the moon mostly covered by Earth. The "ring" appears dark at the bottom because it is obscured by the night-darkened limb of the moon. The Kaguya orbiter was launched in September 2007 to study the moon's origin and evolution. It made a controlled crash landing on the moon in June 2009. (JAXA / NHK) Back to slideshow navigation
  12. 2009: NASA goes back to the moon

    On June 18, 2009, NASA launched two spacecraft to the moon to map its surface in unprecedented detail, scout for future landing sites, and smash probes into a permanently shaded crater in hopes of resolving a longstanding debate over whether such regions contain water ice. NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will orbit both poles for a year, and its mission could be extended to serve as a communications relay for future lunar missions. This is one of the first pictures sent back by the orbiter. LRO's sibling, the crater-smacking LCROSS probe, is due to impact the moon's south pole in October. (NASA / GSFC / ASU) Back to slideshow navigation
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updated 4/19/2010 6:08:11 PM ET 2010-04-19T22:08:11

New data from an Indian probe strongly suggests there are massive chunks of water ice hidden in some of the moon's perennially shadowed polar craters.

The source of the six to 10-foot (one to three-meter) thick ice blocks may be comets that smashed into the moon eons ago, as well as an otherworldly lunar water cycle.

If the measurements are correct, the ice found just in the north pole area amounts to perhaps 600 million cubic meters. That's about two-thirds of a cubic kilometer of water -- an ample supply for spacecraft to use as fuel, should humans ever return to the moon and set up shop, according to Paul Spudis of the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston.

"The amounts are incredible," said Spudis, lead author on a paper in the latest issue of Geophysical Research Letters on the discovery.

One thing that appears to make the water ice possible is the surprisingly low temperatures in these forever sunless craters. Some are only 25 to 30 degrees Kelvin (-415 to -406 Fahrenheit), which makes it impossible for any water trapped in these places to escape.

"They are extremely cold," said Spudis. "Colder than the surface of Pluto."

The new measurements were made by the miniature synthetic aperture radar instrument on board the Indian Chandrayaan 1 spacecraft, which mapped most of the area near the north pole of the moon between February and April of last year.

As for where all that thick ice came from, the patchy way it's distributed suggests that at least some of it is from comets that smacked into the moon, said Spudis. That contrasts with the other way water is thought to possibly accumulate more evenly there: by way of a steady flow of hydrogen atoms from the solar wind.

"It can be shown on a time scale of 100,000 years the (lunar) surface becomes saturated with hydrogen," said Martin Wieser of the Swedish Institute of Space Physics in Kiruna. That hydrogen has been detected in lunar soils by other instruments as either water or oxygen-hydrogen molecules.

Over eons it's conceivable that those molecules waft around the moon until they get trapped in the frigid craters. In other words, the moon has a water cycle, of sorts.

"No one expected that the moon had a water exosphere," said Spudis, referring to the extremely tenuous gases that envelope the moon. Put that water cycle together with the ice blocks and the larger story of lunar water begins to take shape.

"It suggests that on top of this background (solar wind fed hydrogen) signal there are episodic (comet impact) signals" to make the patchy blocks, said Spudis.

The discovery also points to some very specific places to send a robotic probe to find out more, said Spudis.

"In a way it's easier because we know exactly where to go," Spudis said.

A larger message, however, is that this discovery underscores just how little we know about our nearest neighbor in space, despite having already sent humans there.

"It's a very interesting place," agreed Wieser. "There's still a lot to learn."

© 2012 Discovery Channel

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