TOPP
Shortfin mako sharks, tagged off the coast of Southern California.
By
OurAmazingPlanet
updated 6/22/2011 2:56:07 PM ET 2011-06-22T18:56:07

Whither do the great animals of the ocean wander? And when? Thanks to high-tech gadgetry and a decade of work, an answer has begun to emerge — one that has revealed two vast "grasslands" of the Pacific Ocean that rival the Serengeti in the riotous diversity of species that converge there, scientists say.

In the largest study of its kind ever attempted, scientists affixed tracking tags to 23 of the ocean's top predators and spied on their whereabouts — sometimes within a few meters accuracy and in real time — over the course of 10 years.

The Tagging of Pacific Predators Project (TOPP) kicked off in 2000, and published its findings this week in the journal Nature. The project is part of the Census of Marine Life, an ambitious 10-year, multinational effort to assess the state of the planet's oceans, which contain more than 90 percent of the living space on Earth and are still largely unexplored.

TOPP
Travel tapestry: The mapped movements of the 23 tracked species. (Swordfish are not included in this figure.)

Sea lions and tunas and birds, oh my!
Though the name "predator" may call to mind toothy monsters — several shark species were certainly included — the project tracked predators large and small, gentle and ferocious, from tiny birds to elephant seals to blue whales. Any animal that eats another animal.

What emerged was a symphonic portrait of how animals use the ocean, one that revealed a sometimes day-to-day snapshot of where Humboldt squid converged in the deep, where albatross wheeled through the air and where massive leatherback turtles stood in their trans-ocean journeys.

"There have been a number of, 'Oh, wow,' moments," said Dan Costa, a professor at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and one of the study's co-founders. One such moment came five years ago, when the researchers plotted all the species' tracking data together in one spot for the first time.

"It was like, 'Oh my god, this is incredible. This is working,'" Costa said.

TOPP
A salmon shark's dorsal slices the water, satellite tag attached, in the Gulf of Alaska.

Tag team
Over the course of the project, biologists deployed 4,306 tags upon 1,791 animals, and recorded data from 2000 to 2009. Researchers tracked most animals for under a year, but some salmon sharks provided data for up to 3.5 years.

The scientists used several different kinds of tags that deliver data in different ways. A species' tag was dictated by habits and habitat. Birds and sharks, for example, require different sorts of tag technology.

Some tags regularly converse with a satellite, and provide data in real time, allowing researchers to literally check in on an animal day or night. However, for such tags to work, they must occasionally break the surface of the water. Mako sharks, salmon sharks and blue sharks wore these sorts of tags on their dorsal fins, said Randy Kochevar, one of the principle investigators on the project.

Other real-time tags were literally epoxied onto elephant seals. Once the seals shed their fur — which they do all at once, in what is termed a "catastrophic molt" — they left behind the tags as well, allowing researchers to simply walk along the coast and pick up the discarded tags.

TOPP
Nice hat, buddy. A bull elephant seal wears a tracking tag glued to its fur.

"When we get the tags back, we can get a whole bunch more data back than is relayed to the satellite," Kochevar said.

Other tags detach from an animal at an appointed time and float to the surface of the ocean, delivering months of data to a satellite in one fell swoop. Those were used on great white sharks.

Still other tags were retrieved from animals and sent back to labs, where scientists could download six months of data. This class of tags was surgically implanted into albacore, yellowfin and bluefin tunas, all carefully labeled with "If found, return to TOPP," information. An enclosed promise of a check for $1,000 provided a healthy incentive to fishermen who caught the tracked fish to drop the tags in the mail.

Similar tags were attached to birds —  tiny shearwaters and huge albatross. Researchers simply recaptured the birds and retrieved the tags, since the animals returned to the same places year after year.

"What we found that was pretty striking is that many of these animals home right back to where we tagged them," said Barbara Block, co-founder of the study and a professor at Stanford University. "They literally live in our neighborhood."

TOPP
A laysan albatross in flight, its six-foot wingspan on full display.

Ocean safari
In fact, Block said, tracking data revealed that most of the 23 species studied in the project converge just off the West coast of North America in a massive swath of ocean called the California Current, which stretches from Canada all the way down to Mexico. The current begins about 3 miles offshore and stretches as far as 100 miles out to sea.

"It's almost like a giant Yellowstone Park, a place that's full of top predators, everything from blue whales to salmon sharks to white sharks," Block said.

Researchers were able to link animal movements to sea surface temperatures, and found that predators large and small headed to the California Current when waters warmed, likely drawn by rich blooms of phytoplankton, the microscopic plants that form the base of the ocean food chain.

"These are the areas of the ocean that are most productive," Costa said. The movement of the water kicks up nutrients from the cold ocean depths.

In addition to the California Current, the project uncovered a trans-ocean highway between Japan and the vicinity of San Francisco: the North Pacific Transition Zone, another hotspot for iconic ocean creatures. Researchers compared these ocean highways to Africa's lush Serengeti plain, across which thousands of land animals migrate each year — one of the greatest migrations on Earth.

"These currents create the grasslands — the verdant valleys of the oceans," Costa said.

Block said that it was the advent of new technology that allowed for the research, and said there is still much to be learned about how animals traverse the planet's oceans.

"We've come into the largest ecosystem on Earth, and we've begun to make sense of how animals use it," Block said. "How animals use the space together, where there might be a watering hole — and what areas need to be protected."

© 2012 OurAmazingPlanet. All rights reserved. More from OurAmazingPlanet.

Photos: Census of Marine Life

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  1. Census of the seas

    The Census of Marine Life has issued its final report on the 10-year effort to document the diversity of the world's oceans. More than 2,700 scientists cataloged 28 million observations of new species as well as old favorites such as the octopus. This octopus specimen was collected at Lizard Island on Australia's Great Barrier Reef in an Autonomous Reef Monitoring System, or ARMS, at a depth of 30 to 36 feet (10 to 12 meters). The ARMS system is one of the legacies of the census. (Julian Finn / Museum Victoria) Back to slideshow navigation
  2. Jam-packed jellyfish

    The ultimate role of a jellyfish is to reproduce. The brown granular core in this jelly, Bouganvillia supercilliaris, is stuffed to the breaking point with hundreds of eggs. (Russ Hopcroft / Univ. of Alaska-Fairbanks / COML) Back to slideshow navigation
  3. Tree of the sea

    This Christmas tree worm (Spirobranchus giganteus) was found at Lizard Island on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. (John Huisman / Murdoch Univ.) Back to slideshow navigation
  4. Seal of approval

    A young Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) gets his final diving lessons. He is already the size of his mother, who is waiting under the water. Soon, he'll be on his own. The Census of Marine Life cataloged marine mammals as well as other types of creatures ranging from fish to microbes. (Galatee Films) Back to slideshow navigation
  5. Floating ... and stinging

    Sea nettles (Chrysaora fuscescens) float in the water of California's Monterey Bay. The nettle's sting is deadly to small prey but not potent enough to kill humans - except in the case of an allergic reaction. (Richard Hermann / Galatee Films) Back to slideshow navigation
  6. Vampire of the deep

    The vampire squid, also known by the scientific name Vampyroteuthis, is a cephalopod that lives in the oxygen minimum zone of California's Monterey Bay at depths of 2,000 to 3,000 feet (600-900 meters). (Kim Reisenbichler / MBARI) Back to slideshow navigation
  7. Coral complexity

    Researchers with the Census of Marine Life conducted an inventory of octocorals, named for the eight tentacles that fringe each polyp. This is a soft coral, Dendronephthya, from the coral gardens off Lizard Island on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. (Gary Cranitch / Queensland Museum) Back to slideshow navigation
  8. A string of stomachs

    This physonect siphonophore (Marrus orthocanna) was photographed during NOAA’s "Hidden Ocean Expedition." The colonial animal is made up of many repeated units, which include tentacles, and multiple stomachs. Many specimens were observed at depths between 1,000 and 5,000 feet (300 to 1,500 meters). (Kevin Raskoff / COML) Back to slideshow navigation
  9. Long-haired crab

    South of Easter Island, the Census of Marine Life's vent explorers discovered a crab so unusual it warranted a whole new family designation, Kiwidae. Beyond adding a new family to the wealth of known biodiversity, its discovery added a new genus, Kiwa, named for the mythological Polynesian goddess of shellfish. Its furry or hairy appearance justified its species name, hirsuta. (A Fifis / Ifremer via AP) Back to slideshow navigation
  10. Painful beauty

    This type of anemone lives in a mucous tube on the muddy bottoms of coastal waters, estuaries and soft seabeds. They're found in tropical and subtropical waters throughout the world, where they can grow up to 6 inches (15 centimeters) across and a foot (30 centimeters) tall. When the anemone is threatened, the animal retracts into its tube for protection. The beautiful stinging tentacles of the tube anemone vary from a vibrant purple to a creamy brown. (Karen Gowlett-Holmes / COML) Back to slideshow navigation
  11. Two little urchins

    Bottom-dwelling animals often release their larvae into the water for feeding and dispersal as "meroplankton." These two larvae from Russia's Chukchi Sea measure less than a tenth of an inch (1 millimeter) but will eventually grow into sea urchins or sand dollars. (Russ Hopcroft / Univ. of Alaska-Fairbanks / COML) Back to slideshow navigation
  12. The single snail

    This snail (Alviniconcha sp.) inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Suiyo Seamount, off the coast of Japan. It's probably a new species, and only a single specimen has been discovered to date. Where are its peers? (Yoshihiro Fujiwara / JAMSTEC) Back to slideshow navigation
  13. Snazzy snail

    The flamingo tongue snail, Cyphoma gibbosum, was photographed near Grand Cayman in the British West Indies, and is listed in the Gulf of Mexico biodiversity inventory. (Kacy Moody / COML) Back to slideshow navigation
  14. Behold the squidworm

    In October 2007, U.S. and Filipino scientists traveled to the Celebes Sea in Southeast Asia, searching for new species living in its deep water. When they discovered this extraordinary worm — which they named "Squidworm" — they knew they had something special. (Laurence Madin / WHOI) Back to slideshow navigation
  15. Fragile star

    The acantharians are one of the four types of large amoebae that occur in marine open waters. Their fragile skeletons are made of a single crystal of strontium sulfate that quickly dissolves in the ocean water after the cell dies. (Linda Amaral Zettler / MBL (micro*scope)) Back to slideshow navigation
  16. Green banners

    Nereocystis, a marine alga commonly referred to as bull kelp, is often found in the nearshore and shallow gulf areas of North America's Pacific Coast. (Brenda Konar / COML) Back to slideshow navigation
  17. Flea gets its close-up

    Hyperoche capucinus is a common sand flea that swims in polar waters. This specimen is about the width of a finger. (Russ Hopcroft / Univ. of Alaska-Fairbanks / COML) Back to slideshow navigation
  18. A different kind of flytrap

    This striking creature, a Venus flytrap anemone (Actinoscyphia sp.), was photographed in the Gulf of Mexico. The anemone is so named because it resembles the land-based Venus flytrap, a carnivorous plant. (Ian Macdonald / Florida State University) Back to slideshow navigation
  19. Alien in earthly waters

    Gary Cranitch's photographs for CReefs were recognized for excellence by the Australian Institute of Professional Photographers. This spectacular jellyfish inhabits the water of Australia's Great Barrier Reef off Lizard Island. (Gary Cranitch / Queensland Museum) Back to slideshow navigation
  20. Seaweed? Look again

    The leafy seadragon, Phycodurus eques, is camouflaged to resemble a piece of drifting seaweed. (Karen Gowlett-Holmes / COML) Back to slideshow navigation
  21. Pretty in pink?

    This pink see-through fantasia, Enypniastes, is a swimming sea cucumber seen about a mile and a half (2,500 meters) deep in Southeast Asia's Celebes Sea. (Laurence Madin / WHOI) Back to slideshow navigation
  22. A golden lace nudibranch, Halgerda terramtuentis, was collected in the waters of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. (Cory Pittman / NOAA / PIFSC / NHIMN) Back to slideshow navigation
  23. Red jelly

    This specimen of the jellyfish species known as Crossota norvegica was collected from the deep Arctic Canada Basin with a remotely operated vehicle. (COML) Back to slideshow navigation
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